fraternal organization

To have and to hold said land, no. 5.

Abstracts of deeds recording the purchase of real property by African-American churches and lodges in Wilson County:

  • On 25 June 1919, Samuel H. Vick and Mabel Harriss, trustees of Black Creek Council No. 130 of the Lincoln Benefit Society, and Walter Barnes, John Artis, and J.F. Ellis, trustees of Black Creek Lodge No. 8754, Odd Fellows, paid $350 for a lot in Black Creek on the corner of West Railroad and Church Streets.

Deed book 121, page 381, Wilson County Register of Deeds Office.

  • On 20 February 1920, Gary Armstrong and wife Henrietta borrowed $3282.60 from the Endowment Department of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows. In exchange, the Armstrongs gave a mortgage on four parcels measuring 34, 112, 55, and 42 acres. If the Armstrongs defaulted on the loan, the Endowment Department would sell the land to satisfy the debt. This mortgage deed was cancelled 3 January 1924, after the debt was paid in full. Deed book 141, page 59.
  • On 29 October 1923, James Rountree, William Thorne, James Bass, Warren Rountree, Phebe Rountree, and Emma Daniel, trustees of Saint Pauls Disciples Church (Colored), sold to Barnes Chapel Lodge #78, Knights of King Solomon, a one-eighth acre parcel on the north side of the old County Line Road and east side of the public road from Wilson to Nashville, N.C., to be used for lodge purposes only and never for “a place of public amusement or in any manner that will be in derogation of the peace and dignity of the church” next door. [Saint Paul’s is an active church on Lake Wilson Road, just east of N.C. Highway 58, the “public road” referred to. I am not clear if the church not to be disturbed is Saint Paul or some other church.] Deed book 146, page 271.
  • On 1 December 1923, J.L. Newsom, Nathan Bass, and James H. Newsom sold W.K. Knight, Willie Newton, Elias Barnes, C.L. Battle, Charlie Newton, L.W. Williams, and Walter Thompson, trustees of First Baptist Church (Colored) of Lucama, for $125 a one-quarter acre parcel adjacent to the Wilson County Public School (Colored)’s lot on the extension of Main Street near the town of Lucama. Deed book 146, page 397.

As this Google Maps image shows, First Baptist Church still stands just outside Lucama. Its parcel is considerably larger than a quarter-acre and may include the land on which Lucama Colored School formerly sat.

To have and hold the said land, no. 4.

Abstracts of deeds recording the purchase of real property by African-American churches and lodges in Wilson County:

  • On 16 November 1916, J.L. Yelverton and Mary B. Yelverton sold J.H. Winston, Nathan Locus, and Peter Barnes, trustees of Travelers Rest Church of the Bethlehem Primitive Baptist Association, for $50, a lot in Stantonsburg bordering the Yelvertons, the colored school, and B.M. Whitley. The purchase was recorded 6 October 1917 in Deed Book 111, page 347, Register of Deeds office, Wilson.
  • On 18 October 1917, Ace Lucas and wife Anne Lucas sold L. Blackwell, Wesley Strickland, Herbert Taylor, and Ace Lucas, trustees of Sandy Fork Missionary Baptist Church, a 90′ by 90′ lot in Taylors township adjacent to the lands of U.H. Cozart and Ace Lucas. The lot was to be used for Missionary Baptist church building and would revert to the Lucases otherwise. The purchase was recorded 17 November 1917 in Deed Book 111, page 423, Register of Deeds office, Wilson. [Sandy Fork’s current church is just across the county line in Nash County.]
  • On 24 February 1919, Jesse R. Barnes and wife Sarah L. Barnes, having borrowed $300 from George W. Harris, W.M. Pearce, and E.H. Haskins, trustees of the Christian Aid Society of Rountree Missionary Baptist Church, signed over to the Society 3.44 acres on “Colored Masonic Cemetery Road” [Lane Street] adjacent to the lands of Dollison Powell, Margaret Artis, Raleigh Real Estate and Trust Company and S.H. Vick. The Barneses had purchased this property from S.H. and Annie Vick on 26 April 1913, per Deed Book 91, page 580, and the $300 went to pay them off. The loan to the Society was due 24 February 1920. If the Barneses were to default, the Society’s trustees were to sell the land at auction, recoup the debt, and pay any remainder to the Barneses. On the other hand, if the note were satisfied, the deed was void. The deed, filed at Deed Book 117, page 285, was marked paid on 8 February 1923. [This parcel was much smaller than the Barnes land that ultimately became Rest Haven cemetery.]
  • On 9 March 1926, Glenn S. McBrayer and wife Lillian L. McBrayer sold W.H. Brown, W.H. Kittrell, A.C. Winstead, Jno. A. Parker, and Jesse Holden, trustees of Marshall Lodge No. 297, Approved Benevolent Protective Order of Elks of the World, a lot at the corner of Vick and Nash Streets, being part of Lot No. 1 of Block B of the Rountree property recorded in Deed Book 78, pages 62-63, Register of Deeds office, Wilson. The purchase was recorded 29 May 1926 in Deed Book 161, page 608, Register of Deeds office, Wilson.

Deed Book 161, page 608.

Fraternal and benevolent orders.

The Odd Fellows were not the only African-American fraternal order that found toeholds in Wilson County in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. An examination of deed books and other records yields these — some familiar, others much less so:

  • Prince Hall Masons, Mount Hebron Lodge #42, chartered in 1881.
  • Prince Hall Masons, Rocky Blue Lodge #56, chartered before 1910.
  • Prince Hall Masons, Pride of Wilson Lodge #484, chartered before 1947.
  • Knights of King Solomon, Victoria #1, chartered in 1918. Per the Annual Report of the Insurance Commissioner of the State of North Carolina (1925), the home office of the Knights of King Solomon was in Wilson, the organization had been chartered in 1918, its president was William Pierce, and its secretary was C.F. Rich.

Wilson Daily Times, 30 December 1918.

  • Knights of King Solomon, Saint Luke Lodge #53, chartered before 1921.
  • Knights of King Solomon, Richardson Lodge #10, chartered before 1921.
  • Knights of King Solomon, Pride of Wilson Lodge #32, chartered before 1921.
  • Knights of King Solomon, Mount Zion Lodge #9, chartered before 1921.
  • Knights of King Solomon, Barnes Chapel Lodge #78, chartered before 1923.
  • Knights of King Solomon, Love Union Lodge #209, chartered before 1929.
  • Knights of Labor, Assembly #734, chartered before 1888.
  • Knights of Labor, Wilson Light Assembly #10699, chartered before 1887.
  • Knights of Labor, Saratoga Assembly #8221, chartered before 1888.
  • Knights of Labor, Pine Level Assembly #10811, chartered before 1889.
  • Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, Marshall Lodge #297, chartered in 1921.
  • Royal Fraternal Organization, organized in 1910. Per the Annual Report of the Insurance Commissioner of the State of North Carolina (1925), the home office of the Royal Fraternal Organization was in Wilson, the organization had been chartered in 1910, its president was J.W. Parker, and its secretary was Cora C. Lucas.
  • Knights of Pythias, Peaceful Valley Lodge #272
  • Order of Eastern Star, Silver Star Chapter #26

More to come as I research these organizations.

Wilson County G.U.O.O.F. lodges.

I’ve been operating under the assumption there was one Grand United Order of Odd Fellows lodge in Wilson County — Hannibal Lodge #1552. I was wrong. Deeds from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries reveal these others, about which I’m seeking more information:

  • Lucama Lodge #3561

Per Charles H. Brooks’ The Official History and Manual of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows in America (1902), Lucama Lodge was established in 1892:

  • Moyton Lodge #5101, established before 1903.

Moyton was a community adjacent and just south of Stantonsburg.

  • Fairview Lodge, established before 1909.
  • Lodge #5575, established before 1925.
  • Lodge #5785, established before 1912.
  • Zion Hall Lodge #5952, established as before 1903.
  • Black Creek Lodge #8754, established before 1915.

Per Brooks’, the Black Creek lodge established in 1891 was assigned #3446, but a . The higher number suggests that #8754 was a later lodge.

Hannibal, of course, was the oldest of all Wilson County G.U.O.O.F. lodges, founded in 1873:

I also found reference in Brooks’ work to the establishment in Wilson of a Household of Ruth, an order founded “to enlist the sympathies and assistance of women in behalf of the Grand United Order of Oddfellows and to unite the wives, daughters and other sisters more intimately with their fathers, husbands, and other brothers of the Order in working out the beauties of Oddfellowship. To encircle in one social band, the wives, daughters, widows of the Odd Fellowship and entwine around the mystic cord that each and all may be mutually benefited and more closely united in the noble work of relieving the needy, the sick and the distressed.”

To my knowledge, all these lodges are defunct.

The obituary of Frank W. Barnes.

Frank Washington Barnes was an East Wilson Renaissance man. Born in 1911 to Jesse R. and Sarah Barnes Barnes (who sold to the city the land that became Rest Haven Cemetery), he was a barber (early as an employee of Austin N. Neal‘s Carolina Barber Shop and later as owner of Sanitary Barber Shop at 516 East Nash); edited the Wilson community news for Raleigh’s weekly African-American newspaper The Carolinian; was a member of Jackson Chapel First Missionary Baptist Church; was a member of the NAACP; helped found the East Nash Volunteer Fire Department; and ran for political office. He was also affiliated with nearly every fraternal organization active in 20th-century Wilson: Mount Hebron Lodge 42, Prince Hall Masons; Peaceful Valley Lodge 272, Knights of Pythias; Hannibal Lodge #1552, Grand United Order of Odd Fellows; Esther Lodge 467, Household of Ruth; and Marshall Lodge 297, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks.

Wilson Daily Times, 23 March 1982.

Frank W. Barnes’ World War II draft registration card. (On the back, a notation that he was six feet five inches tall.)

 

Hannibal Lodge building burns.

Wilson Daily Times, 29 October 1997.

For more about the Odd Fellows Hannibal Lodge building, see here and here. Shortly after it erected this building, Lodge #1552 established the Odd Fellows cemetery that now lies abandoned and overgrown on Lane Street.  

Saratoga’s Knights of Labor buy land.

The Wilson Lodge of the Knights of Labor was not the only African-American lodge operating in the county. In 1888, the Saratoga branch purchased a lot in the Town of Saratoga, presumably upon which to build a small hall. Here is the deed transcribed from Book 26, pages 378-379:

This deed made the 31st day of March 1888 by and between W.B. Young party of the first part and Essic Horn Blount Bess Benjamin Ruffin and Robert Hines trustees for the Lodge of the Knights of Labor (col) No 8221 of Saratoga Wilson County North Carolina the parties of the second part Witnesseth That for and in consideration of the sum of Eighty five (85) Dollars in hand paid by the parties of the second part the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged the party of the first part has bargained and sold and by these presents does give grant bargain sell and convey unto the parties of the second part all that lot or parcel of land lying in the Town of Saratoga Wilson County State aforesaid and fully described in a deed made by John Robbins and wife to said W.B. Young and recorded in Book No 23 and page 336 in the office of Register of Deeds of Wilson County to which deed reference is made for description of said land To have and to hold together with all rights priviledges and appurtenances thereunto belonging, to the parties of the second part and their successors in office and assigns in fee simple forever. And the said W.B. Young does covenant to and with the parties of the second part & their successors in office and assigns that he has a right to convey the above described land that the same is free from encumbrance, and that he will forever warrant and defend the title to the same against the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever. In testimony whereof, I the said W.B. Young have hereunto set my hand and seal the day and year first above written   /s/ W.B. Young  Witness J.D. Barden

——

  • Essie Horn — in the 1900 census of Saratoga township, Wilson County: farmer Essic [Essex] Horn, 50, and children Abraham, 20, Diana, 18, Henry, 17, Aggie, 15, Sam, 13, Herbert, 8, and Walter, 3.
  • Blount Bess — in the 1900 census of Saratoga township, Wilson County: farmer Blount Best, 53; wife Sarah, 44; and children Joe H., 27, John I., 20, Minnie, 18, Blount, 16, Ida, 14, Annie, 13, Mariah, 10, Ella, 8, Albert, 4, Sack, 2, and Joshua, 1.
  • Benjamin Ruffin — in the 1880 census of Gardners township, WIlson County: farm laborer Benn Ruffin, 56; wide Salie, 45; and children Margret, 16, July A., 13, Charley, 10, Mary, 8, Louvenna, 6, William, 4, and Sallie, 1.
  • Robert Hines — in the 1880 census of Saratoga township, Wilson County: laborer Robert Hines, 21, and wife Elizabeth, 18.

Birds of a feather?

As shown in the 1930 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., City Directory, other than the Masons, all of the city’s white-only benevolent and fraternal organizations met at the Odd Fellows’ Hall at 208 1/2 South Goldsboro Street — including the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.

The building at 206-208 Goldsboro Street S.W. is still standing. Per the nomination report for the Wilson Central Business-Tobacco Warehouse Historic District, when constructed in 1916, the Tomlinson Building “had two storefronts with a central door leading to the lodge on the second story.” The first floor was originally occupied by the Tomlinson Company, then a series of automobile dealers, then Southern Auto Company, and now a wrought-iron design workshop. Fraternal organizations occupied the second floor into the 1930s.

The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan operated 1915 to 1944, the Klan’s so-called second era, when the group fashioned itself — and was clearly accepted as — as a fraternal organization. As across the country, the rise of the civil rights movement in the 1950s ushered in another wave of KKK activity in Wilson County.

Elks Club.

In 1954, Marshall Lodge 297 of the International Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks dedicated a new brick lodge hall at the corner of Nash and Vick Streets. Prior to this, the Elks met at 541 East Nash.

1001-1005 East Nash Street.

Clarence Best engraved the cornerstone.

The lodge is defunct, and the building, long abandoned, is scheduled for demolition.

Hill’s Wilson, N.C. City Directory (1930).

The Masons buy land.

In October 1900, Cain and Margaret Barnes Artis sold a large lot in southeast Wilson to Mount Hebron Lodge No. 42, Prince Hall Masons.

North Carolina, Wilson County }

This Deed made this the 8th day of October, 1900 by Cain Artis and wife Margaret Artis, the parties of the first part to Austin J. Lindsey, Worshipful Master, Lee A. Moore, Senior Warden and John Barnes, Junior Warden, acting officers of Mount Hebron Lodge No. 42 F & A Mason and their successors in office, the parties of the second part, all of said parties being of the aforesaid County and State.

Witnesseth: That the said parties of the first part, for and in consideration of the sum of One Hundred Dollars in hand paid by the said trustees, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have bargained, sold and conveyed and do by these presents bargain, sell and convey unto the said trustees and their successors in office, that certain to or parcel of land lying and being situate in Wilson Township, County and State aforesaid, the same being near the Colored Graded School building and adjoining the lands of Charley Battle, Cain Artis, and Daniel Vick and described as follows:

Beginning at a pine stump on road (commonly called path) in Charley Battle’s corner, thence with his line N. 87. 35 E 264 feet to a stake, thence S. 36. 15 E. with Cain Artiss line 172 1/2 feet to a stake, thence S. 53. 45 W. 230 feet with Cain Artis line to a stake on the road or path thence along said path N. 36. 15 W 308 feet to the first station, containing 57,900 square feet.

To Have and to hold the aforesaid lot of land to them the said trustees and their successors in office in fee simple forever. And the said parties of the first part covenant to and with the said parties of the second part and their successors in office that they will warrant and defend the title to the said land against the lawful claim or claims of any and all persons whatsoever.

In Witness whereof the said Cain Artis and wife Margaret Artis have hereunto set their hands and seals the day and year above written.  Cain (X) Artis, Margaret (X) Artis    J.D. Borden cofc [clerk of court]

——

On 14 December 1876, Cain Artice, 23, of Wayne County, married Ann Thompson, 24, of Wilson in Wilson County. T. Felton, Jno. Newsome and Louisa Thompson were witnesses.

In the 1880 census of Nahunta township, Wayne County: farmer Cain Artis, 25; wife Annie, 25; and children Ivey C., 2, and Appie, 1.

On 11 November 1888, Cain Artis, 35, of Wayne County, son of Adam Artis and Winny Artis, married Margaret Barnes, 38, of Wilson, daughter of Sherard Edmundson, at Margaret Barnes’ house in Wilson. Primitive Baptist minister P.D. Gold performed the service in the presence of H.C. Phillips, Henrietta Clarke and Mary J. Davis. Charles Battle applied for the license.

In the 1900 census of Wilson township, Wilson County: farmer Margaret Artis, 50; daughters Appie, 21, and Mary F., 20; and boarder William Watson, 22. Margaret was described as married; Cain is not found in the 1900 census. Appie was his daughter, and Margaret’s step-daughter.

In the 1912 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., city directory: Artis Cain (Oates & A) h E Nash extd bey limits. Also: Oates & Artis (Wiley Oates – Cain Artis) grocers 601 E Nash.

Appie Artis died 28 May 1916 in Wilson. Per her death certificate, she was born August 1879 in Wayne County to Cain Artis and Annie Thompson of Wayne County; was single; worked as a laborer; and died of pulmonary tuberculosis. Cain Artis, Wilson, was informant.

Cain Artis died 23 March 1917 in Wilson township, also of pulmonary tuberculosis. Per his death certificate, he was born March 1851 in Wayne County to Adam T. Artis and Winnie Coley; was married; and was a farmer. W.M. Coley of Wilson was informant.

Margaret Artis’ will entered probate in January 1919. Though the document is dated 1909, this seems to be an error, and it appears actually to have been executed days before she died in 1919. Her sole heir is her daughter Sarah Barnes Barnes. She makes no mention of husband Cain Artis, and the 44 acres she bequeathed seems to have been property that she had jointly owned or inherited from him.

Deed book 55, page 434, Register of Deeds Office, Wilson County Courthouse.