Sky-high taxes.

Wilson Daily Times, 20 January 1930.


Store keeper Michael Barker, born in Lithuania in 1885, adopted the tone and tenor of native-born Wilsonians in his contribution to the paper regarding a conversation with Rebecca Daniel Pate, who was born enslaved and lived along enough to chat with folks like Barker at the start of the Great Depression.

Rebecca Pate’s parents were Arch and Leah Daniel. In a different article, Pate is said to have identified her former owners as “the Duprees.” Neither Daniel nor Dupree is a surname associated with Wayne County’s Quaker meetings.

The estates of Ephraim Daniel and Zilpha Fort Daniel.

The second in a series documenting enslaved people held by the Daniel family, who lived in the Black Creek area in what was once Wayne County.


Though Ephraim Daniel named only four enslaved people — Simon, Temperance, Robbin and May —  in his will, estate documents reveal that he claimed 26 at the time of his death in 1822. On December 16 of that year, 22 enslaved people were sold to 16 different buyers in the liquidation of Daniel’s estate.

The men, women, and children dispersed from their homes were James (purchased by Hardy Horn and maybe the Jim referred to in Horn’s will and estate file); Jacob; Bob; Oen; Burden; Peter; Enos; Levi; Sarah; Fan; Hester; Jury and child Amy; Silviar; old man Bob; Lany and her three children George, Sintha, and Moses; old man Ned; old man Dick; and Isaac Hoods “the use of him reserved to the old Widow Hood her life time.”

Zilpha Daniel died just two years after her husband Ephraim. An inventory of her estate listed six enslaved people among her property. On 2 January 1826, her belongings went on the block. Her son Rufus hired out Hester; Simon, his wife, and children; and Oen [Owen], who was described as “very sick,” until March 1. On 11 March 1826, all were offered for sale. Rufus Daniel bought Simon, Temperance, and their children Robert and May, whom his father had specifically passed to Zilpha under the terms of his 1822 will.

Estate Files of Ephraim Daniel (1822) and Zilpha Daniel (1824), Wayne County, North Carolina Estate Files, 1663-1979, http://www.familysearch.org.

The last will and testament of Ephraim Daniel.

Ephraim Daniel likely lived in a section of northeast Wayne County, North Carolina, that is now the Black Creek area of southeast Wilson County. (He was a member of Lower Black Creek Primitive Baptist Church.) His will, drafted and entered into probate in 1822, included these provisions:

  • “2nd I give grant and bequeath to my Wife the followin negros Simon and his wife Temperance and their two children Robbin and May.”

  • “It is further my desire that the whole of my negros not already devised to be sold at a credit of twelve months.”

Last Will and Testament of Ephraim Daniel, North Carolina Wills and Probate Records 1665-1998, http://www.ancestry.com. 

He heard a bump and stopped; second highway death in three days.

Wilson Daily Times, 31 August 1942.


  • Fred Woodard — in the 1940 census of Cross Roads township, Wilson County: farmer Fred Woodard, 36; wife Maggie, 36; and children Roy, 15, John D., 13, Doris N., 11, Fred Jr., 9, and Rosie Lee, 7. Fred Woodard died 30 August 1942 in Cross Roads township, Wilson County. Per his death certificate, he was born 1904 in Wilson County to William Woodard and Cora [maiden name unknown]; was engaged in farming; and was buried in Newsome cemetery.
  • George Allen — in the 1940 census of Springhill township, Wilson County: farmer George Allen, 45; his children George Love, 18, Clinton, 16, Ula Pearl, 14, Petronia, 13, and Josephine, 10; niece Jessie, 18; sister Rosa Creech, 35, and niece R. Virginia Creech, 14.
  • Mamie Daniel — in the 1940 census of Cross Roads township, Wilson County: farmer Louis Daniel, 56; wife Mamie, 42; and farm hand Willie R. Bynum, 18. Mamie Daniel died 27 August 1942 at Mercy Hospital, Wilson. Per her death certificate, she was born 1902 in Johnston County, N.C., to Willie Wilson and Phillis Smith; was married to Louis Daniel; and was buried in Beckie Pate cemetery.

The obituary of Thomas Daniel.

Wilson Daily Times, 9 June 1948.


In the 1910 census of Wilson, Wilson County: Mac Daniel, 45; wife Fanny, 36; and children Thomas, 5, Annie, 4, Willie, 3, Jane, 1, and Beatrice, 5 months.

In the 1920 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 635 Vance Street, widow Fannie Daniel, 35, and children Thomas, 17, Annie, 15, Willie, 14, James, 13, Beatrice, 9, and Mary, 8.

On 30 November 1936, Tom Daniel, 36, of Wilson, son of Mark and Fannie Daniel, married Mamie Dixon, 31, of Wilson, daughter of Robert and Nilia Hodges, in Wilson.

In 1940, Tom Daniel registered for the World War II draft in Wilson County. Per his registration card, he was born 12 June 1905 in Wilson County; lived at 715 East Vance Street, Wilson; his contact was his mother Fannie Daniel of the same address; and he was unemployed.

Thomas Daniels died at his home at 544 East Nash Street on 7 June 1948. Per his death certificate, he was born 12 June 1903 in Wilson County to James Mal Daniels of Reidsville, N.C., and Fannie McGowan of Kernersville, North Carolina; worked as a common laborer; was married to Lossie Daniels; and was buried in Rest Haven cemetery. Mary Daniels, 715 East Vance Street, was informant.

Clipping courtesy of J. Robert Boykin III.

A visit from Rebecca Daniel Pate.

Wilson Daily Times, 21 October 1932.

Rebecca Daniel Pate‘s name is memorialized in family graveyard near Lucama known as “Becky Pate Cemetery.”


Richard Pate and Rebecca Daniel were married in Wayne County, N.C., on or about 12 June 1866.


In the 1870 census of Goldsboro township, Wilson County: farm laborer Richard Pate, 37; wife Beckey, 32; and Polly, 12.

In the 1880 census of Cross Roads township, Wilson County: farmer Richard Pate, 36; wife Rebecca, 36; and daughter Trecinda, 3.

In the 1900 census of Cross Roads township, Wilson County: farm laborer Richard Pate, 59, and wife Rebecca, 57.

In the 1910 census of Cross Roads township, Wilson County: farmer Richard Pate, 74; wife Rebecca, 72; and grandchildren Louis Daniel, 30, and Roscoe, 12, and Leanna Barnes, 10.

In the 1920 census of Cross Roads township, Wilson County: Rebecca Pate, 81, widow, living alone.

In the 1930 census of Cross Roads township, Wilson County: Rossie Barnes, 30, farmer; wife Mamie, 27; children William H., 9, Elbert, 7, Leena M., 2, and Johnnie L., 8 months; grandmother Rebecca Pate, 95, widow; sister Leeanna Barnes, 28; and niece Beatrice Barnes, 15.

Rebecca Pate died 31 March 1935 in Cross Roads township, Wilson County. Per her death certificate, she was 108 years old; was the widow of Richard Pate; lived on Pate Farm; was born in Wayne County to Arch Daniel and Leher Daniel; and was buried in Pate cemetery. Informant was William Daniel.

Clipping courtesy of J. Robert Boykin III.

The estate of Isaac Daniel.

Isaac Daniel’s homeplace was at the site of modern Daniels Chapel Free Will Baptist Church, on Frank Price Church Road, northeast of Black Creek (and once part of Wayne County). Daniel made out his will on 13 January 1809. Among its provisions:

  • to beloved wife Mary Daniel, a negro woman woman named Crease
  • to wife Mary Daniel during her lifetime or widowhood, a negro boy named Everett
  • to wife Mary Daniel, negro woman Dinah and “her five younges children” Rose, Gin, Rachel, Lige, and Willie until his daughter Elizabeth Daniel comes of age, and then for Dinah and her children (and any increase) to be divided equally among Isaac and Mary Daniel’s six children, David, Elizabeth, Isaac, Patsey, Polly, and Jacob.

Isaac Daniel’s father was also named Isaac Daniel, which makes for confusing documentation, as we’ll see.

In March 1815, Wayne County Court divided the enslaved people belonging to Isaac Daniel’s estate. Son David Daniel drew Lot No. 1, Rosa and Clary ($440). Son Jacob Daniel drew Lot No. 4, Dinah and Sarah. Daughter Elizabeth Chance drew Lot No. 2, Jim ($375). Son Isaac Daniel drew Lot No. 3, Rachel and Peter. Daughter Martha Hooks drew Lot No. 5, Lige ($290). Daughter Polly Daniel drew Lot No. 6, Willie and Robbin ($425).


Though this 1817 document is found in Isaac Daniel’s estate file, it appears to relate to the estate of his father Isaac Daniel. This Isaac’s children were Isaac and Jacob Daniel, who predeceased their father; Elizabeth Daniel Rountree; and Solomon Daniel. Isaac the first had owned four enslaved people — Sally ($275), Leah ($275), Sharper ($275), and Iredal ($200). The heirs of Isaac Daniel Jr. (the Isaac above) received Sharper. Elizabeth Rountree received Leah. The heirs of Jacob Daniel received Iredal. Solomon Daniel received Sally.


Beginning in December 1814, Jacob Fulghum, guardian of Isaac Daniel’s minor sons, kept a log for several years of “the hire of the Negroes belonging to Jacob and Isaac Daniel.” (This appears to refer to Isaac the second and his brother.)

Dena and children were named as enslaved people belonging to Jacob Daniel. Dena’s youngest was born between 28 December 1814 and 28 December 1815. By 1821, Dena’s children Jack and Sary were old enough to be hired out on the own.

Isaac Daniel’s enslaved people were Rachel and Peter.



This undated inventory was returnable to February Court 1822, but it is unclear whether it pertains to Isaac Daniel the first or second. In any case, it names two additional enslaved people — boy Laurance and girl Rena.


On 13 December 1821, in another estate sale, Lawrence was sold to Barton Daniel and Serena to Sally Daniel.

Isaac Daniel Estate Records (1810), Wayne County, North Carolina Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998 [database on-line], http://www.ancestry.com.