1900s

Evildoers.

News & Observer, 18 December 1907.

  • R.G. Wynn
  • Albert Ward
  • Oliver Brown
  • Sylvia Barnes — in the 1900 census of Stantonsburg township, Wilson County: farmer Harry Barnes, 67; wife Sylva, 66; son Harry, 20; daughter-in-law Rena, 17; and granddaughter Henrietta, 14. Silvia Barnes died 8 September 1925 in Wilson township, Wilson County. Per her death certificate, she was 83 years old; married to Harry Barnes; was the daughter of Peter and Rosa Barnes; and worked as a tenant farmer for Billie Sims. Harry Barnes Jr. was informant.
  • Willie Moore
  • Moses Smith — in the 1900 census of Cross Roads township, Wilson County: day laborer Dudley Smith, 53; wife Mittie, 32; and children Polly, 13, Moses, 6, and Herbert, 4.
  • Tom Faison

Marriages at Saint Mark’s, no. 1.

Patrick M. Valentine’s The Episcopalians of Wilson County: A History of St. Timothy’s and St. Mark’s Churches in Wilson, North Carolina 1856-1995 (1996), features several invaluable appendices that illuminate Wilson’s tiny African-American Episcopalian community. Valentine credits Cindy and Jeff Day with compiling them, and this post is the first in a series annotating the marriage list.

“Appendix J: Marriages, St. Mark’s Episcopal Church” shows the marriages between 1895 and 1905:

  • Richard Norwood to Celia Hill, 27 February 1895

On 28 February 1895, Celia A. Hill, 22, daughter of H. and H[enrietta]. Hill, married Richard Norwood, 21, son of B. Norwood of Chatham County, in Wilson. Episcopal minister J.W. Perry performed the ceremony at Saint Marks in the presence of John H. Clark, B.R. Winstead and S.A. Smith. Cecilia Anna Norwood died 27 June 1944 in Wilson. Per her death certificate, she was born 14 February 1879 in Washington, North Carolina to Edward Hill and Henrietta Cherry; resided at 205 Pender, Wilson; was widowed; and was a teacher. Informant was Hazel Covington of Wilson.

  • Robt. Norwood to Lydia Freeman, 26 January 1899

On 26 January 1899, Robert Norwood, 24, of Wilson County, son of Harris and Rebecca Norwood of Bynum, North Carolina, married Lydia Freeman, 21, daughter of Julius and Eliza Freeman of Wilson. Episcopal priest W.B. Perry performed the ceremony at Julius Freeman’s in the presence of William Kittrell, William Barnes and John Williams. Robert Norwood died 20 October 1916 in Wilson. Per his death certificate, he was married; was born in 1880; and worked as a cook in a cafe. Informant was Julius Freeman.

  • James Roach [sic] to Jane Tyson, 24 May 1899

James Branch, 29, of Wilson County, married Jane Tyson, 30, on 24 May 1899. J.C. Palmer applied for the license; Rev. W.B. Perry performed the ceremony at the home of Mrs. J.C. Palmer in the presence of J.C. Palmer, Mrs. J.C. Palmer and Robert Norwood. In the 1900 census of Wilson, Wilson County: tobacco packer James Branch, 28; wife Jane C., 31, cook; and stepsons Carrol C. Tyson, 12, house servant, and Caborn C. Tyson, 8.

On 2 August 1899, Walter B. Hulin, 21, of Wilson County married Hattie Artis, 18, of Wilson, at “Mrs. Artis’ home” in Wilson. Rev. W.B. Perry, Episcopalian, performed the ceremony, and James Artis, Miss Irene Winstead and Mrs. Barnes witnessed. [W.B. Perry, in contravention to Jim Crow norms, appears to have been deliberate about his use of the honorifics “Miss” and “Mrs.” for his African-American congregants.]

  • Spincer Barnes to Annie Petyford, 4 December 1899

On 4 December 1899, Spencer Barnes, 26, of Wilson County, married Anna Pettiford, 25, of Franklin County, daughter of Manlis and Frances Pettiford. Rev. W.B. Perry, Episcopalian, performed the ceremony, and Mr. McDonald, Miss Irene Winstead and Mrs. James Branch witnessed.

  • Junius M[illegible] and Jin [illegible], 14 August 1899

Junius Munk, 26, son of Dudley and Pheomy Munk of Magnolia, North Carolina, married Jennie Strickland, 24, daughter of Jim and Neomy Strickland, of Wilson on 14 August 1899. Rev. W.B. Perry performed the ceremony at the bride’s home in the presence of Howard Strickland, John Coleman and Archie Hunt.

  • Dr. Frank Welleston and Done Battle, 17 September 1905

On 17 September 1905, F.O. Williston, 24, of Wilson, son of Henrietta Williston of Fayetteville, North Carolina, married Doane Battle, 19, daughter of Charles Battle of Wilson. F.S. Hargrave applied for the license, and Rev. Robert F. Perry performed the ceremony at James Jenkins‘ home in the presence of F.S. Hargrave, James Jenkins and William Dawson.

  • Colie Barnes and Leaha Barnes, 27 December 1905

Wilson County marriage records do not reflect a marriage between Colie Barnes and Leaha Barnes. However, on 27 December 1905, Colie Barnes, 20, married Ella Taylor, 19, in Wilson.

I certify to his high character.

When Lily-White Republican Senator Jeter C. Pritchard set out to oust postmaster Samuel H. Vick, who represented “the last vestige of negro office holders in the state,” a slew of prominent Wilson Democrats bucked convention to rally in Vick’s favor. Among the politicians, lawyers and businessmen supporting Vick was John H. Blount, whose letter of recommendation noted that Vick’s “mother and grandmother belonged to [his] father.”

The writer of this opinion piece mocks the Democrats who had once lamented Vick’s sinecure, “pictur[ing] how their dear wives and daughters were humiliated by having to transact all their postal business at Wilson with a negro postmaster and negro postal clerks.

peoples paper 12 10 1902

The People’s Paper (Charlotte, N.C.), 10 December 1902.

Bird’s eye view.

“During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the cheap cost of printing lithographs coupled with the pride of small towns laid the foundation for the success of artists who specialized in hand drawn panoramic birds-eye view maps of American cities. The idea behind the panoramic birds-eye view was to draw the town at an oblique angle from an imaginary vantage point in the air, from the viewpoint a bird would have flying over the city. Although the scale of certain buildings were exaggerated to make the town more visible, the accuracy and attention to detail was otherwise so meticulous that each building was almost an exact copy of its real world counterpart down to the number of windows it possessed. There were numerous artists that gained popularity during this period. One such artist was Thaddeus Mortimer Fowler, known more by the name printed on each of the maps he completed, T.M. Fowler.” From Thaddeus Mortimer Fowler, Pennsylvania State Archives, http://www.phmc.state.pa.us

Screen Shot 2017-11-12 at 5.42.29 PM

In 1908, T.M. Fowler issued a bird’s eye map of Wilson. Drawn from the perspective of, say, a hawk floating above what is now Barton College, the map focuses on the town’s most prosperous districts. The Atlantic Coast Line Rail Road slices across the top left corner of the map, however, and beyond the track — Black Wilson.

Though none of the district’s buildings were highlighted on the margins of the map, a close examination reveals several that are immediately identifiable. At (1), looming over the 600 block of Green Street, is the turreted home of postmaster-cum-real estate developer Samuel H. Vick. At (2), at the corner of Green and Elba Streets, Pilgrim Rest Primitive Baptist Church. At (3), Calvary Presbyterian Church. At (4), Darden and Sons funeral home. At (5), First Baptist Church. At (6), Saint John A.M.E. Zion Church.

Continuing across the top of the map — headed southeast on the ground —  at (7), down Stantonsburg Street, the Colored Graded School, and (8) the stemmeries and tobacco factories of Little Richmond.

In 1908, little of East Wilson was inside city limits, which did not extend much beyond Pender Street or the tobacco factory district. Thus, many of the houses and other buildings depicted in Fowler’s fabulous map, including the graded school and all of Vick’s neighborhood, were not surveyed in the Sanborn fire insurance map produced the same year.

Sanborn fire insurance map, Wilson, North Carolina (1908).

The once moral man is the father of the bastard child.

Screen Shot 2017-11-04 at 8.13.49 PM

Screen Shot 2017-11-04 at 8.14.57 PM

News & Observer (Raleigh, N.C.), 2 November 1909.

Rev. Owen L.W. Smith had, of course, been a Presiding Elder of the A.M.E. Zion Church and United States minister to Liberia. The News & Observer‘s restraint in covering his downfall is especially remarkable when earlier coverage of the affair is considered. The Smith-Moye had scandalized black Wilson. Moye not only worked for the church, she was married, and her husband had been driven off by Smith’s peremptory claims to her time. Just as shocking — the magistrate’s dismissal of Smith’s suit!

Screen Shot 2017-11-04 at 9.22.10 PM

Screen Shot 2017-11-04 at 9.22.54 PM

Screen Shot 2017-11-04 at 9.23.51 PM

News & Observer (Raleigh, N.C.), 27 August 1908. 

“Delia R. Moye” was Delia A. Moye, listed in the 1908 city directory as a teacher residing at Goldsboro near Bank. Also at that address, her teenaged son, porter Albert Moye. In the 1910 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 459 Goldsboro Street, widowed laundress Della Moye, 31, with her children Albert, 17, twins Hattie and Mattie, 9, and Ethel, 2, who was Smith’s child. (In subsequent city directories, too, Delia Moye was described as a laundress. She lost her teaching job as a result of her pregnancy. She also likely was not actually a widow.)

On 18 August 1944, Ethel Mae Moye, 35, daughter of O.L.W. Smith and Della Smith [sic], married David H. Coley, 49, son of W.H. and Luanna Coley, in Wilson. A.M.E. Zion minister W.A. Hilliard performed the ceremony in the presence of C.L. Darden, Norma Darden and Mrs. Ambrose Floyd.

Delia Ann Moye died 19 April 1955 at her home at 1207 East Washington Street, Wilson. Per her death certificate, she was born 27 March 1882 in Greene County to Sandy Malone and Mattie [maiden name unknown; was widowed; and was a retired school teacher. Informant was Ethel M. Coley, 1207 East Washington.

Studio shots, no. 15: Dardens and friends.

Lizzie Darden commemorating her high school graduation with Roderick Taylor (standing), her brother Camillus L. Darden (seated), and a friend (seated in Picture-Taking George W. Barnes‘ chair), circa 1903.

Photograph courtesy of N.J. and C. Darden, Spoonbread and Strawberry Wine (1978).

Struck on the head by an iron cog wheel.

d news 9 20 00

Wilson Daily News, 20 September 1900.

——

On 30 November 1892, Thos. Day, 24, parents living, but not listed, of the town of Wilson, married Julia Battle, 19, daughter of Lewis Battle, of the town of Wilson. Presbyterian minister L.J. Melton performed the ceremony at Lewis Battle’s house. J.J. Wilson and J.W. Rogers were witnesses.

In the 1900 census of Wilson, Wilson County: tobacco stemmer Thomas Day, 33; wife Julia, 27, laundry woman; and boarders James Parham, 25, teamster, and John H. Gregory, 19, and Donald Parker, 17, both tobacco stemmers.

Negroes take advantage. (Vick is an unusual negro.)

NY Times 12 7 1902 Vick

President William H. Harrison appointed Samuel H. Vick postmaster of Wilson in 1889. President William McKinley selected Vick again for the position in 1898. Despite the setback described above, the Lily Whites ultimately were successful in thwarting Vick’s reappointment in 1903.

Barber v. Barber.

Attorney John E. Woodard filed this divorce petition on behalf of his client, Sallie M. Barbour, in Wilson County Superior Court in early 1901.

  • Charles and Sallie M. Barber were married 11 July 1896 in Clayton, Johnston County. [Note: as shown in her signature, Sallie, at least, spelled her last name “Barbour.”]
  • Their sons — Luther, 13, twins James and John, 9, and Hubert, 7 — live with their father, “who is not a proper person to have the care and custody” of the children.
  • On 27 February 1900, Charles assaulted Sallie with a pistol, forcing her to flee their home to a neighbor’s house.
  • Charles, “who is a strong man,” also struck Sallie, “a frail delicate woman,” with his fist.
  • Charles is a “habitual drunkard” who, when under the influence, has repeatedly threatened Sallie’s life.
  • Since she was forced to leave their house, Charles has refused to support Sallie. Sallie has tried to support herself as a school teacher, but Charles, “to annoy and embarrass” her, notified the school superintendent and trustees to pay her salary to him.
  • Charles has committed adultery with Dora Sills, Hannah Cooke and others.
  • Sallie, a life-long North Carolina resident, is seeking divorce, child custody, and costs.

——

In the 1880 census of Clayton, Johnston County: Essex Blake, 53; wife Clara, 43; and children Della, 23, Robert, 21, Sallie, 19, Benjamin, 17, James, 15, Halsey, 12, Antney, 10, Timothy, 8, Ardelia, 6, Narsissie, 6, and Jerry, 5.

The 1900 census reflects the Barbours’ separation. In Wilson, Wilson County: mechanic Charley Barber, 41, described as married; sons Luther, 13, James and John, 7, and Hubert, 5; widowed sister Mary Tomlingson, 42, and her children Ella, 9, and Charley, 4; and boarders Turner Utley, 27, John Purkison, 31, and George Garrett, 25. In a different household: John W. Rodgers, 30; wife Mary E., 22; sister Minnie, 17; and boarder Sallie Barber, 35, described as “widowed.”

In the 1908 version of Hill’s Wilson, N.C., city directory, the only Barbers listed are James M., Jno. W., and Luther Barber at 129 Pender Street, and Sallie Barber next door at 131 Pender.

However, over the next decade, the couple reconciled. In the 1910 census of Wilson, Wilson County: mechanic Charlie Barber, 47; wife Sallie, 40, teacher; sons Luther, 21, James and John, 17, and Hubert, 15; and roomers Willie Harris, 17, and Carrie Mayswood, 16.

In the 1920 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 809 Nash Street, barber John Barber, 27; wife Ethel, 26; widowed mother Sallie, 59, a school teacher; and brother Luther Barber, 32, also a barber.

In the 1930 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 1100 East Nash Street, Sallie Barber, 67, widowed public school teacher, and her sister Tiny Hill, 69, also a widowed teacher.

Sallie Minnie Barbour died 22 April 1942 at her home at 1100 East Nash Street, Wilson. Per her death certificate, she was 71 years old; was born in Wake County to Essex Blake and Clara Hodge; was a widow; and was a schoolteacher. Ardelia Nunn, 1100 East Nash, was informant.