1900s

Borrowing from Wilson Home and Loan Association, pt. 3.

East Wilson’s new property owners often turned to Wilson Home and Loan Association, a savings and loan association affiliated with George D. Green, for short-term financing.

  • On 29 April 1892, S.H. Vick borrowed $300 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a one-half lot adjoining R.J. Taylor, Peter Rountree, and others on Nash Street. The loan was satisfied 25 September 1897. Deed Book 32, page 9.
  • On 28 January 1893, Noah Best and wife Sarah Best borrowed $125 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a one and one-eighth acre lot on the eastern side of the northern extension of Nash Street near the town of Wilson, adjoining Orren Best, T.A. Woodard, Nelson Farmer, and others, and purchased from Orren Best. The loan was satisfied 11 May 1899. Deed Book 32, page 21.
  • On 30 March 1893, A.D. Dawson and wife Lucy Dawson borrowed $300 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a one-half acre lot on the south side of Vance Street adjoining Silas Lucas, James T. Wiggins, and others. The loan was satisfied 29 May 1899. Deed Book 32, page 25.
  • On 26 January 1896, Della Hines borrowed $250 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a lot on the west side of Green Street adjoining Hardy Tate, S.H. Vick, and others, and being the lot upon which Hines lived. The loan was satisfied 14 December 1899. Deed Book 32, page 33.
  • On 8 June 1894, Short Barnes and wife Frances Barnes borrowed $300 from W.H.L.A., a one-quarter acre lot on Green Street adjoining John T. Bridgers and George D. Green. The loan was satisfied 5 May 1900. Deed Book 32, page 47.
  • On 25 January 1897, C. Mack Wells and wife Cherry Wells borrowed $500 from W.H.L.A, mortgaging a one-third acre lot “on a lane in the rear of Charles Battles lot leaving Pender Street” [i.e., Viola Street] and adjoining Levi Peacock and S.H. Vick. The loan was satisfied 10 March 1913. Deed Book 32, page 85.
  • On 15 February 1897, Sam’l Barnes and wife Ida Barnes borrowed $400 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a one-fourth acre lot on a lane [Viola Street] in the rear of Ann Bryan‘s lot leaving Pender Street and adjacent to Elder Phillips‘ lot. The loan was satisfied 23 May 1904. Deed Book 32, page 88.

This note from Wilson Home & Loan to Wilson County Register of Deeds is pasted in the deed book.

  • On 10 January 1898, R.S. Wilkins and wife Mary Wilkins borrowed $200 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a one-quarter lot on the north side of Lodge Street adjoining Annie Bynum and others, conveyed to the Wilkinses by W.G. Batts. The loan was satisfied 19 May 1903. Deed Book 32, page 98.

Computing scales, a massage machine, and a release: miscellaneous transactions, no. 3.

Most “deed” books stacked in the search room of the Wilson County Register of Deeds Office contain just deeds, but others, like Volume 72, contain miscellaneous records of sales agreements, leases, contracts, chattel mortgages, and other transactions. These documents offer rare glimpses of the commercial and farming lives of Black Wilsonians.

  • On 19 December 1908, Charity Robbins rented a heater pipe and fire board for $11.65 from Dildy & Agnew. Deed Book 72, page 414.
  • On 1 October 1907, George W. Suggs rented a range and fixtures for $23 from Dildy & Agnew. Though the full price was to be paid by 1 January 1908, the contract was not recorded until 11 March 1909, when Beatrice Suggs signed instead of G.W. Suggs. Deed Book 72, page 416. [This would seem to be Washington Suggs, but if so, who is Beatrice Suggs? She was not one of his daughters.]
  • On 9 April 1909, Oscar Best, “owner of store,” agreed to pay Strubler Computing Scale Company, Elkhart, Indiana, $85.00 for a Number Two “computing scales green finish.” Deed Book 72, page 443.
  • On 23 July 1909, Levi Jones gave a mortgage to The Eugene Berninghaus Company for a Birkman massage machine to secure a $28 debt. Deed Book, page 472.
  • On 19 August 1909, D.C. Suggs granted Sidney A. Woodard an option to purchase for $3600 a nine-acre parcel of land bounded in part by the intersection of the Norfolk & Southern and Wilmington & Weldon railroads. The option included this provision: “I also agree to allow a Rail Road siding beginning at the 2 or 3 third telegraph pole from Floyd Bynum’s house to enter said plot of land passing through my land and to sign such papers as are necessary for a right of way.” Deed Book 72, page 475.
  • On 16 November 1909, for $300, O.L.W. Smith released Norfolk & Southern Railway Company from any damage to him or his property at Goldsboro and Banks Streets resulting from the building and construction of a railroad, railbed, roadways, bankments, and excavations adjacent to Smith’s property. Deed Book 72, page 505.

A mule named Rody, twelve acres of cotton, and a Hackney-made buggy: miscellaneous transactions, no. 2.

Most “deed” books stacked in the search room of the Wilson County Register of Deeds Office contain just deeds, but others, like Volume 72, contain miscellaneous records of sales agreements, leases, contracts, chattel mortgages, and other transactions. These documents offer rare glimpses of the commercial and farming lives of Black Wilsonians.

  • On 2 February 1907, John Artis and A.P. Branch agreed that Branch would advance Artis forty (up to fifty) dollars in supplies in order for Artis to make a crop on  in exchange for a lien on land in Black Creek township owned by and rented from Nathan Bass and on which Artis resided. In return, Artis agreed to cultivate and harvest twelve acres in cotton, nine in corn, and four in tobacco, and gave a lien not only on those crops, but on a seven year-old black mare mule named Rody; a buggy and harness; an iron axle cart; and all his farm implements. Deed Book 72, page 191.
  • On 25 February 1907, R.E. Hagan leased to Richard Renfrow, Charles S. Thomas, and Andrew Pierce for $8.00 per week “One Certain Outfit for Barber’s Shop,” consisting of five hydraulic barber’s chairs, twelve sitting chairs, one table, one bootblack stand, one barber’s pole, one mug case, five chairs, combination cabinet with mirrors, five towel jars, one complete wash stand, window curtains, and other furniture and furnishings in Renfrow, Thomas, and Pierce’s shop on Nash Street in a building owned by Hagan. Renfrow, Thomas, and Pierce further agreed to pay all taxes on the property and insure it against fire to the value of $700. After 215 weeks of payments, Renfrow, Thomas, and Pierce had the option to purchase the property for $912. Deed Book 72, page 195.
  • On 24 December 1906, Neverson Green agreed to purchase a #10 Computing Scale from The J.H. Parker Co. of Richmond, Virginia, for $57.50 payable in installments. Deed Book 72, page 205.
  • On 6 December 1907, to secure a debt of $3500, James White and George W. Suggs gave Samuel H. Vick a mortgage on 13 sets of single harnesses; three sets of double harnesses; five winter buggy robes; ten summer robes; one clipping machine; one roomer top desk; one iron safe; one saddle; one roan horse; four gray horses; two black horses; one bay horse named George; three bay mares; one brown horse; one sorrel horse; two double surries; one double carriage; four steel tire buggies; five rubber tire buggies; one drummers wagon; two runabout buggies; one single wagon; and one spring wagon. The loan was satisfied and discharged on 19 February 1908. Deed Book 72, page 249.
  • On 6 November 1907, H.G. Whitehead agreed to sell to Samuel H. Vick “an outlet through the lands of Silas Lucas and the said H.G. Whitehead” near Wilson’s corporate limits on both sides of the Norfolk & Southern Railroad at the extension of Warren Street, as well as another outlet at a place to be determined. Deed Book 72, page 249.
  • On 1 December 1907, to secure a debt of $712, James Hardy gave Samuel H. Vick a mortgage on one set of wagon harnesses; one wagon; one gray horse; one horse named George; one sorrel horse; one surrey horse; one surrey; one top buggy, Hackney make; three sets of harnesses; two buggy robes; one wagon pole; one set of double harnesses; and one buggy pole. Vick had sold this property to Hardy for use in a livery stable in the Town of Wilson. Deed Book 72, page 250.

Mohair barber chairs, pool tables, and a mule named Puss: miscellaneous commercial transactions, no. 1.

Most “deed” books stacked in the search room of the Wilson County Register of Deeds Office contain just deeds, but others, like Volume 72, contain miscellaneous records of sales agreements, leases, contracts, chattel mortgages, and other transactions. These documents offer rare glimpses of the commercial and farming lives of Black Wilsonians.

  • On 7 October 1904, Richard Renfrow agreed to pay Wootten, Stevens & Company $33.75 in thirty installments for “one Barber chair & covered in Mohair plush, color Red, Oak frame, Nickel plated irons” and “one Mirror 18X40 in Gilt Frame (Bevel Mirror).” Deed Book 72, page 8.
  • On 22 March 1905, to secure a $50 debt, Arch Atkinson mortgaged to James H. Williamson “one bay mare mule named Puss, also all the crops made on my home place of every description.” Deed Book 72, page 37.
  • On 24 June 1905, to secure a $209.45 debt, J.W. Rogers mortgaged to The B.A. Stevens Company “one 4-1/2 x 9 No. 4537 Buckeye Pool Table with bed and cushion cloth; 1 set of pool balls; one cue rack; 1 ball rack; 1 dozen cues; 1 brush; 1 bridge; 1 basket; 1 shake bottle; 1 set shake balls; 1 triangle; 1 rail fork bit; one 4-1/2 x 9 No. 4539 Elmwood Pool Table with bed and cushion cloth; 1 set of pool balls; one cue rack; 1 ball rack; 1 dozen cues; 1 brush; 1 bridge; 1 basket; 1 shake bottle; 1 set shake balls; 1 triangle; 1 rail fork bit. Located in his place of business ….” Deed book 72, page 55.

Shake bottles advertised in B.A. Stevens Company’s 1894 catalog.

  • On 5 October 1905, to secure a $50 debt, C.H. Knight mortgaged to The Eugene Berninghaus Company “2 Climax Barber Chairs, oak wood now located on the premises known as C.H. Knight’s Barber Shop in Wilson.” Deed book 72, page 69. [Charles Knight’s barbershop was on East Nash Street just across the railroad tracks from the Atlantic Coast Line passenger station and likely catered  to white travelers and drummers.]

Beringhaus “Climax” chair, circa 1890. Auctioned in 2018 by Rich Penn Auctions, Waterloo, Iowa.

  • On 27 November 1905, Samuel H. Vick agreed to sell R.J. Grantham for $1725 a lot on the south side of Barnes Street known as the former home place of Wiley Corbett, it being the lot Vick bought from J.D. Lee and wife. Deed book 72, page 76. [Wiley Corbett was a grocer, hotelier, whiskey distiller, and barroom. I’m not sure exactly where his house was on Barnes Street, but it was likely one of several two-story dwellings depicted on East Barnes between Spring [Douglas] and Lodge Streets in the 1903 Sanborn fire insurance map of Wilson.]
  • On 24 November 1905, to secure a $99.45 debt, Richard Renfrow mortgaged to Koken Barber’s Supply Company of Saint Louis, Missouri, the following items from Koken’s 1905 catalog, which were to be placed in Renfrow’s “one story metal covered building, known as Wiggins Building on Nash Street”: “two 142 One Lever barber chairs … upholstered in maroon plush,” “four #333 mirroes 24 x 30 bevel” and four “327 mirroes bevel,” all of oak. Deed book 72, page 83.
  • On 14 September 1906, F.S. Hargrave sold to F.O. Williston “all of the Drugs, Medicines, Sundries, and fixtures of the Ideal Pharmacy,” as well as accounts payable and receivable, but not the soda fountain, tanks, and other apparatus in the shop. Deed book 72, page 171.

  • On 1 January 1907, to secure a debt of $150, Raeford Dew mortgaged to Patience Lamm, on whose land in Cross Roads township Dew was engaged in the cultivation of various crops, “one bay mare mule bought of John T. Moore, one iron axle cart, two plows, one turning plow the other cotton plow and all other farming implements,” plus all crops cultivated in 1907. Deed book 72, page 176-177. [Six months later, Dew shot and killed his wife Mittie Dew and her lover, his brother Amos Dew.]

Borrowing from Wilson Home and Loan Association, pt. 1.

East Wilson’s new property owners often turned to Wilson Home and Loan Association, a savings and loan association affiliated with George D. Green, for short-term financing.

  • On 25 February 1901, Charles Battle borrowed $700 from Wilson Home and Loan Association, mortgaging (1) a two-acre lot on the east side of Stantonsburg Street adjoining the lands of William Goffney, Jane Taylor, Peggie Farmer, M.H. Cotton, and John Gaston and (2) a quarter-acre lot on the east side of Green Street bounded by Pender Street, an alley, the lot of Anna Bynum, and others. The note was paid off and cancelled 5 January 1906. Deed Book 32, page 159. [This lot appears to be the property Battle’s wife Leah Battle, who died in 1898, purchased from George and Ella Green in 1887. The alley was what we now know as Viola Street; see below.]
  • On 17 June 1901, [Mary] Jane Henderson (whose husband was Sandy Henderson, but who applied for the loan herself) borrowed $500 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a lot on the west side of Nash Street adjoining the lots of J.E. Clark, Ed. Moore, and R.J. Taylor known as “the Alfred Robinson lot” and purchased by Jane Henderson from Robinson. The note was paid off and cancelled 5 December 1906. Deed Book 32, page 170. [For more about this lot, now numbered 536 East Nash, see here.]
  • On 3 July 1901, Daniel Vick and wife Fannie Vick borrowed $800 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a one-third acre lot on the north side of Church (or Goose Neck) Street adjoining the lots of Wash Sugg, J.W. McGowan, Mrs. Julia Harrison, and others, “it being the lot assigned Wilson Barnes, and of which he died in possession.” The note was paid off and cancelled 5 December 1906. Deed Book 32, page 171.
  • On 9 September 1901, C.M. Wells and wife Cherry Wells borrowed $300 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a one-third acre lot “on a lane in rear of Charles Battle’s lot leaving Pender street, familiarly known as Pig Alley,” adjoining the lots of S.H. Vick, and Levi Peacock and being the home place of the Wellses. The note was paid off and cancelled 27 December 1906. Deed Book 32, page 174. [Charles Malachi “Mack” Wells, Cherry Williams Wells, and family lived at 615 Viola Street. It appears that the lane behind Charles Battle’s lot, known as Pig Alley, was the precursor to Viola Street, which Samuel H. Vick named for one of his daughters. That Viola began as an alley explains its narrowness relative to Green and Vance Streets.]

1922 Sanborn fire insurance map showing the Wellses’ house at 615 Viola and Viola’s narrow width.

  • On 15 August 1901, Della Barnes (with consent of her husband David Barnes) borrowed $600 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a one-third acre lot on the east side of Green Street adjoining the lots of Hardy Tate and S.H. Vick, “it being the lot conveyed to Della Barnes by George D. Green and wife … in 1894.” The note was paid off and cancelled 19 May 1906. Deed Book 32, page 173. [The Barneses’ house at 613 East Green Street stood until the 1990s.]
  • On 12 February 1902, Walter Hines borrowed $400 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a lot on the northeast side of Green Street adjoining the lots of David Barnes and Charles Thomas, it being the lot bought from Samuel and Annie Vick. The note was paid off and cancelled 19 May 1906. Deed Book 32, page 180. [This lot is at what is now 621 East Green Street. The Vicks bought the lot from John Blount.]
  • On 13 February 1902, Hardy Johnson and his wife Martha Johnson borrowed $300 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a  lot on the eastern suburb of Wilson “on the south west side of Vick alley near Green Street adjoining Isham Perry and others” and purchased from S.H. Vick. The note was paid off and cancelled 18 May 1907. Deed Book 32, page 181. [The description does not seem to fit the location of the Johnsons’ house at 705 East Green Street, but Isham Perry lived at 703 East Green. Was “Vick alley” the original name of Elba Street (also named by Sam Vick for one of his daughters)?]
  • On 29 May 1902, L.A. Moore and wife Louisa Moore borrowed $550 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a one-quarter acre lot on the north side of “the old plant [plank] road” Green Street adjoining the lots of Bowlden Tyson, Surry Tarboro, and S.H. Vick. The note was paid off and cancelled 4 June 1907. Deed Book 32, page 189. [This appears to be the lot at 646 East Nash, just west of East Street, on which Lee Andrew and Louisa Moore’s first house was located.]
  • On 26 November 1902, Dorsey Williams borrowed $400 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a lot on the eastern side of Lipscomb Street adjoining the land of Mrs. S.B. Lipscomb and Lucy Woodard. The note was paid off and cancelled 18 May 1907. Deed Book 32, page 198.

  • On 8 January 1903, Daniel Vick borrowed $500 from W.H.L.A., mortgaging a  lot on the fork of the old plank road [East Nash Street] and the old Barefoot road [probably what we now know as South Pender Street] adjoining the land of Charles Darden, “it being all the land owned by E.N. Mercer in the forks of said roads and on which is located a Brick store house and also all the land claimed by said Vick in the forks of said roads.” The note was paid off and cancelled 4 August 1908. Deed Book 32, page 200.

 

The Vicks take a loan from a friend.

Daniel Vick‘s prominence in local and regional Republican politics broadened the network of people upon whom he could call for favors. In 1898, he reached out to Henry E. Hagans of Goldsboro, for a loan. Hagans had been personal secretary to United States Congressman George H. White and remained active in politics even as assumed a position as principal of Goldsboro’s State Colored Normal School.

On 9 November 1898, Daniel and Fannie Vick executed to Henry E. Hagans of Goldsboro a promissory note for $400 to be paid by 9 February 1899.  If Vick defaulted, Hagans would sell at public auction two lots on Church Street and Barefoot Road in Wilson. The Vicks missed the mark, but Hagans did not call in the loan. A handwritten note on the mortgage deed states: “The within papers transferred to S.H. Vick this the 6th day of May AD 1899 /s/ H.E. Hagans”

Henry E. Hagans (1868-1926), in a portrait appearing in a feature article in the 21 September 1904 The Colored American.

Samuel H. Vick, of course, was Daniel and Fannie Vick’s wealthy son, who was also active and well-connected in Republican circles. The deed was filed in Wilson County on 16 April 1903 and recorded in Deed Book 66, page 236. Another note states: “This mortgage is satisfied in full by taking taking a new mortgage and is hereby cancelled 4 Dec 1903 /s/ S.H. Vick”

Deed Book 66, page 236.

Conveyance to the Elm City Colored Cemetery trustees.

Deed Book 81, page 323.

In 1893, Ellen Williams, J.H. Joyner, Joseph Short, Haywood Batts, Amos Whitley, William Barnes, George Barnes, Robert Barnes, Agatha Williams, Frank Barnes, James Williams, Doublin Barnes, Amerson Parker, George Gaston, Joshua Farmer, Louis Deans, Leah Bullock, Elbert Locust, John Marshaw, Richard Battle, William Pender, George Barnes Jr., and Proctor Battle “associate[d] themselves” to purchase land to establish an African-American cemetery just outside Elm City. The group bought a two and a half acre parcel from Thomas G. Dixon and wife on 6 January 1893. As they began to sell burial plots, however, they ran into a problem. Securing the signatures of all the owners on every single sale was difficult and time-consuming.

After fifteen years of this struggle, on 28 September 1908, the owners conveyed the Elm City Colored Cemetery to three of their number — Robert Barnes, Haywood Batts, and George Barnes — as trustees. 

Thomas Deans, Co. H, United States Colored Heavy Artillery.

On 4 February 1901, in Norfolk, Virginia, Thomas Deans gave a sworn statement in support of his claim for a Union soldier’s pension.

I am about 57 years of age; my post office address is 117 Green St., Portsmouth, Va. Laborer.

My full and correct name is Thomas Deans. I was never known by any name other than Thomas Deans. I was a slave and belonged to Wiley Deans, who resides 10 miles from Wilson, N.C.

My fathers name was Harry Newsom. My mothers name was Rena Deans. I had two brothers and two sisters. Rose and Charity. Rose resides somewhere in Miss[issippi] and Charity is dead. Jacob Woodard and Jordan Woodard are my brothers. Jacob died soon after the close of the War. I have not seen or heard of Jordan for 40 years. He was sold away before the war. When these boys were born my fathers owner was Woodard — Stephen Woodard. I was only six weeks old when i was sold by Woodard to Deans.

I was born in Wilson Co. N.C. and when 18 or 19 I enlisted at Newberne N.C. in Co. H — 14th U.S.C.H.A. for three years but did not serve that long. I do not know whether I was in the service two years. I can’t tell how long I did serve. I enlisted about “shad” time, early spring, and discharged in winter, at Fort Macon, N.C.

I had no other service.

Poor was Col. Hopkins was St. and Capt. They changed so after that I do not remember the names of all the Sts. George Taylor, Samuel Boykin was my tent mates. Freeman Harvey William Jones, Alfred Dixon was in my Co. I was detailed at Morehead City loading and unloading goods. Any [illegible] for 4 months. I was in Hospital at Morehead for three months with fever. I never knew the name of the fever My Regt was not in any engagement. We were at Newbern Fort Macon and Morehead all the time.

I did not incur any disability in the service. There were no [illegible] results of the fever.

I never applied for pension until the new law was passed.

Since discharge I have resided at Wilson, Goldsboro, and Wilmington N.C. and Newberne N.C. and Norfolk, Va. I have resided in Norfolk since Feb 1900.

I have been employed at the Norfolk Navy Yard for one year, in the capacity of laborer and have received the same wages as other laborers, $1.52 per day.

Dr. Love Wilmington N.C.

Dr. Whitley Newberne N.C. have treated me, at times, in recent years.

Thomas X Deans

——

The National Homes for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers were established following the Civil War to provide living space for disabled American soldiers and sailors. Deans entered the home at Hampton, Virginia, a few months before his death in 1911.

The hospital’s registry shows that Deans enlisted on 8 March 1865 at Fort Macon, North Carolina, and served as a private in Company H, 14th U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery. He was discharged 11 December 1865 at Fort Macon. His disabilities included a right inguinal hernia, rheumatism, impaired vision, and cardiac hypertrophy.

Deans was born in North Carolina; was 67 years old; was five foot seven inches tall; had a black complexion, black eyes, and black hair; could not read or write; had worked as a laborer; had lived in Phoebus, Virginia; was married; and his nearest relative was his wife Catherine Deans.

Deans’ rate of pension was 13.50 [dollars per …?], and he was admitted to the hospital on 24 March 1908 with pericarditis. At the time his personal effects were valued at fifty-five cents.

Thomas Deans died 21 February 1914 and was buried in Hampton National Cemetery, Hampton, Virginia. Per the cemetery’s burial registry, he was buried in grave 10553 and had been a member of Company H, 14th U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery.

Deans’ wife Catherine was awarded a widow’s pension of twelve dollars per month.

——

  • Thomas Deans

In the 1900 census of Norfolk, Virginia: on Caledonia Street, laborer Thomas Deans, 59; wife Catherine, 30; and mother-in-law Julia Joyner, 73; all born in North Carolina.

In the 1910 census of Phoebus, Elizabeth City County [Hampton], Virginia: Thomas Deans, 70, and wife Catherine, 41, washerwoman.

  • Harry Newsom
  • Rena Deans — on 3 August 1867, Jacob Woodard, son of Gabriel Woodard and Rena Deans, married Anna Tyson, daughter of Jack Tyson and Diana Tyson, at the residence of A.G. Brooks, justice of the peace. [This appears to be Thomas Deans’ brother Jacob and mother Rena.]
  • Jacob Woodard — see above. Also, on 5 September 1870, G.W. Blount, J.S. Woodard, and J.W. Blount filed letters of administration for Jacob Woodard. [Was this Thomas Deans’ brother? His death date is consistent with Deans’ testimony that his brother died “soon after the close of the War.”]
  • Joshua Woodard
  • Wiley Deans — son of Bartley Deans Sr., a large slaveowner in Oldfields township, Wilson County.
  • Stephen Woodard — most likely Stephen Woodard Sr., but possibly physician Stephen Woodard Jr.

Files #849,635, Application of Thomas Deans for Invalid’s Pension; #1,029,598, Application of Catherine Deans for Widow’s Pension; National Archives and Records Administration.

The final resting place of baby George E. Smith.

George E., Son of Rev. O.L.W & Adora Smith, Aug. 31, 1905 June 21, 1906

I recently noticed for the first time in the Masonic Cemetery the little white marble headstone of George E. Smith, infant son of Rev. Owen L.W. and Adora Oden Smith. It was a rough decade for the Smith family. Five year-old daughter Flossie burned to death in 1901, the Reverend’s mother Maria Hicks died in 1902, and little George and his mother Adora followed in 1906.

Photo by Lisa Y. Henderson, March 2022.