Work Life

Where we worked: 1922 — D.

City directories offer fine-grained looks at a city’s residents at short intervals. The 1922 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., directory reveals the types of work available to African-Americans during the booming tobacco era. This post is the fourth in an alphabetical series listing all “colored” directory entries for whom an occupation was listed. The address is the resident’s home, unless a business address is noted.

  • Dale, Lucy, midwife, 519 South Spring
  • Darden, Arthur N., (C.H.D. & Sons), 111 Pender
  • Darden, C.H. & Sons (C.H., C.L. & A.N.), undertakers, 608-610 East Nash
  • Darden, Camillus L., (C.H.D. & Sons), 500 East Green
  • Darden, Charles H., (C.H.D. & Sons), 111 Pender
  • Darden, Major, tobacco worker, 505 Smith
  • Darden, Wade, tobacco worker, 306 Spring Street Alley
  • Darden, Walter T., clerk – C.H. Darden & Sons), 111 Pender
  • Darden, Zadie, laundress, 903 Mercer
  • Darden’s Hall, 610 East Nash
  • Davis, Addie, teacher, 621 East Nash
  • Davis, Frederick, paperhanger, 621 East Nash
  • Davis, Godfrey, farmer, 803 Mercer
  • Davis, James, laborer, 609 Gay
  • Davis, James, laborer, 518 East Nash
  • Davis, John, laborer, 313 Stantonsburg Road
  • Davis, Laura, domestic, 511 East Green
  • Davis, Louisa, tobacco worker, 509 South Mercer
  • Davis, Luther, laborer, 609 Gay
  • Davis, Mamie, tobacco worker, 803 Mercer
  • Davis, Susan, tobacco worker, 515 Railroad
  • Davis, Tiney, tobacco worker, 509 South Mercer
  • Dawson, Jane, tobacco worker, 215 Stantonsburg Road
  • Day, Charles, cook, 305 Mercer
  • Deans, James T., Rev., 514 South Lodge
  • Deberry, Andrew, cook, 208 Sunshine Alley
  • Deberry, Charity, tobacco worker, 215 Stantonsburg Road
  • Deberry, Irene, cook, 614 East Green
  • Deberry, James, tobacco worker, 317 Stantonsburg Road
  • DeBose, James, laborer, 133 Ashe
  • DeBose, Lillie, domestic, 133 Ashe
  • Delicatessen, The, 519 East Nash, C.E. Artis proprietor
  • Dempsey, Mattie, tobacco worker, 412 South Spring
  • De Vaughn, Ethel, domestic, 212 Finch
  • De Vaughn, Lee, carpenter, 212 Finch
  • De Vaughn, Sarah, domestic, 305 North East
  • Dew, Daisy, cook, 604 South Lodge
  • Dew, Joseph, farmer, 705 South Goldsboro
  • Dew, Junius, tobacco worker, 604 South Lodge
  • Dew, Laura, laundress, East Nash extended
  • Dew, Lizzie, tobacco worker, 712 East Green
  • Dew, Ross, tobacco worker, 712 East Green
  • Dew, Willliam, fireman, 523 South Spring
  • Dew, Zeb, cook, 906 Mercer
  • Dewel, Harry, laborer, 204 Sunshine Alley
  • Dickens, Creecy, domestic, 116 Pender
  • Dickens, Paul, tobacco worker, 516 Church
  • Dickens, Richard, laborer, 116 Pender
  • Dickens, Washington, laborer, 600 Stantonsburg Road
  • Dickson, Herbert, tobacco worker, 414 Stantonsburg Road
  • Dickson, Lillie, tobacco worker, 414 Stantonsburg Road
  • Diggs, E. Hiram, barber – W.S. Hines, 205 North Vick
  • Diggs, Henry, farmer, 703 Suggs
  • Dillard, Annie M., student, 604 South Spring
  • Dixon, Alice, tobacco worker, 500 South Lodge
  • Dixon, Gladys, domestic, 406 Whitley
  • Dixon, William, shoe repairer, 500 South Lodge
  • Dowd, Cora, domestic, 516 Carroll
  • Drake, Grady, laborer, 215 Manchester
  • Drake, Sallie, laundress, 215 Manchester
  • Dubissette, Michael E., physician, 550 East Nash, (home) 911 East Green
  • Dudley, Henry, carpenter, 205 North Vick
  • Dunn, John, tobacco stemmer, 800 East Nash
  • Dunn, Noah, tobacco worker, 800 East Nash
  • Dunn, Richard, Rev., 800 East Nash
  • Dunston, Allen, helper, 806 South Lodge
  • Dunston, Caroline, laundress, 800 South Lodge
  • Dunston, Charles, tobacco worker, 800 South Lodge
  • Dunston, Evelyn, tobacco worker, 800 South Lodge
  • Dupre, Nancy, tobacco worker, 106 South Vick
  • Dupre, Wiley, tobacco worker, 106 South Vick
  • Dupree, David, painter, 416 Walnut Alley
  • Dupree, Edward, laborer, 518 Church
  • Durdin, William, laborer, Mercer near Five Points Settlement

Where we worked: 1922 — C.

City directories offer fine-grained looks at a city’s residents at short intervals. The 1922 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., directory reveals the types of work available to African-Americans during the booming tobacco era. This post is the third in an alphabetical series listing all “colored” directory entries for whom an occupation was listed. The address is the resident’s home, unless a business address is noted.

  • Calvary Presbyterian Church, Green at corner of Pender
  • Cannon, Charles, carpenter, 724 East Green
  • Cannon, Lavalier, domestic, 724 East Green
  • Cannon, Mack D., barber, 505 East Nash, (home) 201 Pender
  • Cannon, Stattie, dressmaker, 724 East Green
  • Carroll, Dave, plasterer, 113 South East
  • Carroll, Lizzie, tobacco worker, 412 Spring Street Alley
  • Carroll, Mack, chauffeur, 412 Spring Street Alley
  • Carroll, William, gardener, 412 Spring Street Alley
  • Carter, Clarence, laborer, 418 East Green
  • Carter, Harry, drayman, East Nash extended
  • Carter, Isabella, domestic, 904 East Nash
  • Carter, Milford, cook, 905 Viola
  • Carter, Robert, bicycle mechanic – C.H. Darden & Sons, 904 East Nash
  • Carvit, Henrietta, cook, 610 South Spring
  • Chambers, Peter, laborer, 314 South Lodge
  • Chambers, Zeb, laborer, 200 West Lee
  • Chambliss, John, tobacco worker, 137 Narroway
  • Cherry, Henry, bellman, 411 East Green
  • Chestnut, Ben, tobacco worker, 304 Spring Street Alley
  • Chick, Cleveland C., barber – W.S. Hines, 311 Pender
  • Chiney, Patience, cook, 109 West Gold
  • Christ Disciples Church, 707 South Spring, Rev. Bryant Kornegy pastor
  • Citizens Garage, East Nash Road extended, Joseph Williams proprietor
  • Clark, Ada, domestic, 805 Wiggins
  • Clark, Bettie, domestic, 606 East Green
  • Clark, Flora R., student, 706 East Nash
  • Clark, John H., carrier – Post Office, 706 East Nash
  • Clark, Letha, dressmaker, 606 East Green
  • Clark, Meta, tobacco worker, 805 Wiggins
  • Clark, Mittie, cook, 607 West Vance
  • Clark, Samuel, laborer, 810 Robinson [Robeson]
  • Clark, Sarah, laundress, 606 East Green
  • Clayton, Freeman, farmer, 515 Smith
  • Clements, James, tobacco worker, 905 Robinson
  • Clements, Mollie, laundress, 905 Robinson
  • Cloffer, George, helper, 310 South Lodge
  • Cobb, Arthur, laborer, 703 East Nash
  • Cobb, Bettie, laundress, 1010 Robinson
  • Cobb, General C., cook – Leonard C. Lewis, 1010 Robinson
  • Cobb, Isaac, tobacco worker, 617 East Nash
  • Cobb, Sherman, cook, 1010 Robinson
  • Cobb, William, laborer, 416 South Lodge
  • Cobb, Willie, domestic, 617 East Nash
  • Cofield, Julia, tobacco worker, 410 South Lodge
  • Coleman, Lucy, laundress, 611 East Nash
  • Coleman, Samuel, tobacco worker, 611 East Nash
  • Coley, Alonzo, plasterer, 915 Washington Avenue
  • Coley, Eva J., teacher, 401 North Vick
  • Coley, George, cook, 118 Ashe
  • Coley, Henry, barber, 401 North Vick
  • Coley, Jasper, bricklayer, 401 North Vick
  • Coley, Laura V., teacher, 401 North Vick
  • Coley, Maggie, domestic, 611 Gay
  • Coley, Rosa, laundress, 708 Walnut
  • Coley, Rufus, janitor, 1010 Atlanta [Atlantic]
  • Coley, Victoria, domestic, 604 East Green
  • Collins, Allie, domestic, 707 Suggs
  • Collins, Esther, domestic, 212 South Reid
  • Collins, Peter, porter, 707 Suggs
  • Collins, Sun, drayman, 301 Stantonsburg Road
  • Commercial Bank of Wilson, 426 East Nash, S.H. Vick president, J.D. Reid active vice-president, H.S. Stanback cashier, phone 982

  • Connor, Flossie, domestic, 407 East Green
  • Cook, Alfred, laborer, 615 Stantonsburg Road
  • Cook, Cora, domestic, 605 Moore
  • Cooke, Jerre L., clerk, R.M.S., 512 Hadley
  • Cooper, Church, driver, 507 Hadley
  • Cooper, George, tobacco worker, 419 South Goldsboro
  • Cooper, Hazel, domestic, 407 South Railroad
  • Cooper, Millard, laborer, 523 South Spring
  • Cooper, Savannah, cook, 609 Spruce
  • Cooper, William, gasfitter, 108 South Reid
  • Coppedge, George W., plasterer, 200 South Vick
  • Coppedge, Mittie, domestic, 200 South Vick
  • Coppridge, Jane, domestic, 113 Manchester
  • Council, Alberta, domestic, 710 Suggs
  • Council, James, farmer, 710 Suggs
  • Covington, Alice, domestic, 531 Smith
  • Covington, Mary, laundress, 707 East Green
  • Covington, Ruth, clerk, 724 East Green
  • Coward, Bryant P., Rev., pastor St John A.M.E. [Zion] Church, 119 Pender
  • Cox, Harrison, tobacco worker, 305 North East
  • Cox, Lula, domestic, 111 South Reid
  • Cox, William, laborer, 116 [sic] Viola
  • Crank, Annie, tobacco worker, 519 Stemmery
  • Crawford, Clarence A., bricklayer, 616 East Green
  • Crawford, Daniel, watchman, 605 South Spring
  • Crawford, Josephine, domestic, 206 North Reid
  • Crawford, Theodore, student, 605 South Spring
  • Crawford, W. Clyde, president – Wilson Building & Construction Company, 206 North Reid
  • Crawford, Wilhelmina, teacher, 605 South Spring
  • Crawford, Willard, student, 605 South Spring
  • Creech, Haywood, tobacco worker, 416 East Green
  • Crum, Julia, laundress, 209 Stantonsburg Road
  • Currie, Nancy, cook, 304 East South

Notes:

  • Who were W. Clyde and Josephine Crawford, and what was the Wilson Building Construction Company? The family is not found in a Wilson census record.

Page 27, Hill’s Wilson, N.C., City Directory 1922-23.

Where we worked: 1922 — B.

City directories offer fine-grained looks at a city’s residents at short intervals. The 1922 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., directory reveals the types of work available to African-Americans during the booming tobacco era. This post is the second in an alphabetical series listing all “colored” directory entries for whom an occupation was listed. The address is the resident’s home, unless a business address is noted.

  • Bailey, Albert, fireman, 523 South Spring
  • Bailey, Rita, domestic, 118 Ashe
  • Baines, H[enry] Roscoe, carpenter, 307 North Reid
  • Baker, James, tobacco worker, 546 East Nash
  • Baker, William M., carpenter, 610 South Spring
  • Banaman, Frank, tobacco worker, 109 Ashe
  • Banner, Edward, driver, 614 Spruce
  • Banner, Mamie, domestic, 614 Spruce
  • Barber, Ethel, domestic, 1100 East Nash
  • Barber, Sallie, teacher, 1100 East Nash
  • Barbour, James M., proprietor – Wardrobe Pressing Club, 916 Atlantic
  • Barefoot, Bertha, domestic, 918 Washington Avenue
  • Barefoot, Ernest, porter, 324 Hackney
  • Barefoot, Hubert, presser, 412 North Vick
  • Barefoot, Linwood, proprietor – Barefoot Pressing Works, 918 Washington Ave
  • Barefoot Pressing Works, 507 East Nash, Linwood Barefoot proprietor
  • Barham, William, presser – Edwin Thomas, East Nash extended
  • Barnes, Agnes, tobacco worker, 523 Smith
  • Barnes, Albert, tobacco worker, 204 Sunshine Alley
  • Barnes, Alonzo, barber, 806 E Green
  • Barnes, Anna, laundress, 106 South Carroll
  • Barnes, Artelia, domestic, 500 East Green
  • Barnes, B. Frank, laborer, 106 South Carroll
  • Barnes, Bud, driver, 306 South Lodge
  • Barnes, Charlie G., 106 South Carroll
  • Barnes, Cherry, domestic, 608 Stantonsburg Road
  • Barnes, Clifton, tobacco worker, 417 South Goldsboro
  • Barnes, Cora, tobacco worker, 111 Manchester
  • Barnes, Dave, barber – W.S. Hines, 613 East Green
  • Barnes, Della, domestic, 613 East Green
  • Barnes, Dicey, domestic, 901 Stantonsburg Road
  • Barnes, Dorothy, maid, 209 West Nash
  • Barnes, Edward, porter, 418 North Vick
  • Barnes, Ella, laundress, 602 South Daniel
  • Barnes, Eva, tobacco worker, 302 Stantonsburg Road
  • Barnes, Fannie, tobacco worker, 642 Wiggins
  • Barnes, Frances, domestic, 512 Stemmery
  • Barnes, Frank, plasterer, 517 Railroad
  • Barnes, Frank, tobacco grader, 801 Mercer, (home) 716 South Goldsboro
  • Barnes, Fred, laborer, 126 Ashe
  • Barnes, George, farmer, 526 East Barnes
  • Barnes, George, laborer, 203 West Gold
  • Barnes, Harriett, laundress, 214 Manchester
  • Barnes, Henrietta, domestic, 1109 Atlanta
  • Barnes, Henry, laborer, 409 North Pine
  • Barnes, Henry, tobacco worker, 804 South Lodge
  • Barnes, Henry, tobacco worker, 406 Viola
  • Barnes, Howard W., barber – W.M. Hines, 420 Vick
  • Barnes, James F., laborer, 106 Carroll
  • Barnes, James H., barber, 420 East Nash, (home) 670 Viola
  • Barnes, John, helper, 114 Smith
  • Barnes, John, laborer, 810 South Lodge
  • Barnes, John, presser, 413 South Goldsboro
  • Barnes, John H., tobacco worker, 312 South Lodge
  • Barnes, John M., plasterer, 500 East Green
  • Barnes, Joseph, barber, 212 Manchester
  • Barnes, L[eonard]. Elroy, plasterer, 500 East Green
  • Barnes, Larry, presser, 212 Manchester
  • Barnes, Lemon, laborer, 1009 Atlanta
  • Barnes, Littleton, carpenter, 407 Viola
  • Barnes, Lizzie, maid, 1109 Atlanta
  • Barnes, Lonnie, barber – W.S. Hines, 802 East Green
  • Barnes, Louise, laundress, 418 North Vick
  • Barnes, Lucy D., tobacco worker, 212 Manchester
  • Barnes, Maggie, cook, 303 Stantonsburg Road
  • Barnes, Mal, laborer 408 South Lodge
  • Barnes, Mazie, domestic, 642 Wiggins
  • Barnes, Oscar, laborer, 406 South Goldsboro
  • Barnes, Pate, laborer, 1112 East Nash
  • Barnes, Rodenia, tobacco stemmer, 212 Manchester
  • Barnes, Rosa, domestic, 403 East Walnut
  • Barnes, Rosena, laundress, 119 East Walnut
  • Barnes, Sarah, cook – Carolina Hotel, 116 Pender
  • Barnes, Short W., carpenter, 616 East Green
  • Barnes, Sudie, tobacco worker, 602 South Daniel
  • Barnes, Tobe, tobacco worker, 309 Spring Street Alley
  • Barnes, Victoria, tobacco worker, 102 Ashe
  • Barnes, Weldon, laborer, 108 West Lee
  • Barnes, William, laborer, 1020 Wainwright
  • Barnes, Wright, laborer, 608 Railroad
  • Bass, Dezell, tobacco worker, 107 Stantonsburg Road
  • Batchelor, Amanda, domestic, 808 Suggs
  • Batchelor, Bonnie, laborer, 410 East Hines
  • Battle, Arza L., hairdresser – Carrie Strickland, 300 South Spring
  • Battle, Cary, horse shoer – J.Y. Buchanan, East Nash near East
  • Battle, Daisy, tobacco worker, 404 South Lodge
  • Battle, Dave, section hand, 404 South Lodge
  • Battle, Delphia, tobacco worker, 705 East Nash
  • Battle, Edward, laborer, 813 East Green
  • Battle, Ella, tobacco worker, 322 South Spring
  • Battle, Ernest, laborer, 609 South Lodge
  • Battle, Esther, tobacco worker, 209 East Spruce
  • Battle, Frank, freight hand, 902 East Nash
  • Battle, Frank, tobacco worker, 705 East Nash
  • Battle, Frank, tobacco worker, 912 Wainwright Avenue
  • Battle, Frank F., laborer, 1101 Woodard Avenue
  • Battle, Grace, maid – Oettinger’s, 322 South Spring
  • Battle, Hattie, laundress, 705 South Lodge
  • Battle, John, factory hand, 322 South Spring
  • Battle, Joseph, tobacco worker, 606 South Spring
  • Battle, Marie, domestic, 813 East Green
  • Battle, Maud, cook, 106 West Vance
  • Battle, Miller, section hand, 405 Spring Street Alley
  • Battle, Minnie, cook, 209 East Spruce
  • Battle, Narcissa, domestic, 503 Warren
  • Battle, Roberta, teacher, 322 South Spring
  • Battle, William L., tobacco worker, 506 South Lodge
  • Batts, Amos, Grand Scribe Knights of King Solomon Inc., 1113 East Nash
  • Batts, Jacob, 601 South Lodge
  • Batts, John, laborer, 317 South Goldsboro
  • Beckwith, Cora, domestic, 516 South Lodge
  • Beckwith, Odelle, cook, 208 Manchester
  • Becoat, Robert, tobacco worker, 108 South Vick
  • Bell, Charles, laborer, 509 Railroad
  • Bell, Hester, tobacco worker, 908 East Nash
  • Bell, Jasper, tobacco worker, 908 East Nash
  • Belmon, Tobe, laborer, 511 Railroad
  • Bennett, James W., tailor – Powell’s Cleaning Works, 527 Church
  • Bennett, Mable, domestic, 527 Church
  • Bennett, Pearl, laundress, 524 East Barnes
  • Bentley, Mary, domestic, 908 Mercer
  • Berry, Samuel, 508 North Pine
  • Best, Aaron, porter, 517 South Spring
  • Best, Ada, domestic, 1105 West Nash
  • Best, Clinton, bricklayer, 208 Pender
  • Best, Eliza, seamstress, 320 South Spring
  • Best, Frankie, domestic, 320 South Spring
  • Best, Harper, farmer, 320 South Spring
  • Best, John, laborer, 106 Ashe
  • Best, John W., soft drinks, 304 South Lodge, (home) 400 South Lodge
  • Best, Lossie, laundress, 913 Washington Avenue
  • Best, Minnie, domestic, 208 Pender
  • Best, Nannie, tobacco worker, 320 South Spring
  • Best, William, bricklayer 913 Washington Avenue
  • Best, Wilson, bricklayer, 1105 West Nash
  • Bethea, Iola, waitress, 304 East South
  • Black, Grover, laborer, 907 Robinson
  • Black, James, laborer, 501 Stantonsburg Road
  • Black, Martha, laundress, 907 Robinson
  • Black, William, tobacco worker, 507 Bank
  • Blackman, Andrew, drayman, 620 Darden Alley
  • Blow, Harrison, tobacco worker, 902 Mercer
  • Blow, Jane, tobacco worker, 902 Mercer
  • Blow, Sudie, laundress, 310 East Walnut
  • Blow, William, laborer, 513 Smith
  • Blue, Susie, domestic, 137 Ashe
  • Blue, William, tobacco worker, 137 Ashe
  • Boone, James, tobacco worker, 611 South Spring
  • Boone, Linwood, tobacco worker, 414 South Spring
  • Booten, Caroline, laundress, 206 East Hines
  • Borden, Liza, domestic, 204 South Vick
  • Bowden, William R., presser – Powell’s Cleaning Works, 110 Finch
  • Bowen, Horace, laborer, 802 South Lodge
  • Bowers, Bud, laborer, 414 Walnut Alley
  • Bowling, Fletcher, laborer, 518 South Lodge
  • Bowser, Astor B., insurance agent, 520 East Nash
  • Bowser, Sarah L., dressmaker, 520 East Nash
  • Bowser, Thomas F., cook, 520 East Nash
  • Boyette, Bud, tobacco worker, 304 East Walnut
  • Boyette, Emma, domestic, 210 Pender
  • Boyette, Jensie, tobacco worker, 304 East Walnut
  • Boyette, Nathan, carpenter, 210 Pender
  • Boykin, Bettie, 190 North East
  • Boykin, Charles, chauffeur, 306 East Walnut
  • Boykin, John, carpenter, 801 Viola
  • Branch, J.G., Rev., pastor Mount Zion Holiness Church, (home) Goldsboro, N.C.
  • Branch, Letta, tobacco worker, 507 Hadley
  • Brant, Elnora, domestic, 416 East Green
  • Brant, Joseph, bricklayer, 416 East Green
  • Braswell, Cora, domestic, 639 Wiggins
  • Braswell, William, laborer, 414 Whitley
  • Braxton, Viola, domestic, 415 South Railroad
  • Brewington, Angeline, domestic, 601 South Railroad
  • Brewington, David, laborer, 601 South Railroad
  • Brewington, Edward C., proprietor – Brewington Pressing Works, 1212 East Nash
  • Brewington Pressing Works, 561 East Nash, Edward C. Brewington proprietor
  • Bright, Martha, tobacco worker, 802 East Nash
  • Brin, John, tobacco worker, 110 South Vick
  • Brinkley, Nannie, domestic, 203 Stantonsburg Road
  • Britt, Mamie, cook, 113 Manchester
  • Brody, David, grader, 303 Mercer
  • Brody, Gertrude, domestic, 113 Pender
  • Brody, Josephine, student, 303 Mercer
  • Brooks, Burley, bicycle mechanic – C.H. Darden & Sons, South Atlantic
  • Brooks, Eva, laundress, East Nash extended
  • Brooks, Jesse, sexton – First Baptist Church, Stantonsburg Road
  • Brooks, Jesse B., barber – W.M. Hines, Atlantic near Nash
  • Brooks, John, carpenter, East Nash extended
  • Brooks, Minnie, domestic, 810 East Nash
  • Brooks, Seth, barber – W.M. Hines, 908 Elba
  • Brown, Edward, laborer, 411 North Pine
  • Brown, Edward H., carpenter, 202 South Vick
  • Brown, Ellis, tobacco worker, 906 Viola
  • Brown, Estelle, laundress, 306 Pender
  • Brown, Eva L., dressmaker, 202 South Vick
  • Brown, Jesse, tobacco worker, 1202 East Nash
  • Brown, Maggie, laundress, 1008 Woodard Avenue
  • Brown, Mattie, laundress, 809 Suggs
  • Brown, Nora, tobacco worker, 205 South Railroad
  • Brown, Oma, domestic, 209 South Railroad
  • Brown, Peter, cook, 406 Spring Street Alley
  • Brown, William, laborer, 809 Suggs
  • Brown, William H., printer, 202 South Vick
  • Bryant, Beatrice, domestic, 632 Suggs
  • Bryant, Cora, domestic, 111 Pender
  • Bryant, Edward, cook, 411 North Pine
  • Bryant, Harry H., tobacco worker, 619 Suggs
  • Bryant, Julia, domestic, 619 Suggs
  • Bryant, Millie, cook, 308 West Nash
  • Buie, Alma, tobacco worker, 209 North East
  • Bullard, Ayatte, domestic, 112 Fourth
  • Bullard, Minnie, domestic, 112 Fourth
  • Bullard, Wesley, presser, 112 Fourth
  • Bullard, William, carpenter, 112 Fourth
  • Bullock, Jolly, laborer, 120 North Railroad
  • Bullock, Lizzie, domestic, 525 Church
  • Bullock, Mack, tobacco worker, 1008 Robinson
  • Bullock, Martha, laundress, 1106 Wainwright
  • Bullock, Richard, laborer 1208 East Nash
  • Bullock, Swindell, butler, 1200 West Gold
  • Bullock, William, laborer, 525 Church
  • Bunk, William, 913 Robinson
  • Bunn, Abraham, carpenter, 629 Wiggins
  • Bunn, Bertie, domestic, 502 South Bruton
  • Bunn, Martha, domestic, 629 Wiggins
  • Burke, Lottie, laundress, 211 Stantonsburg Road
  • Burks, Georgia, teacher, 322 South Spring
  • Burl, Linda, domestic, 304 Stantonsburg Road
  • Burns, Henry, laborer, 409 Spring Street Alley
  • Burton, William H., tobacco worker, 201 North Vick
  • Burtsell, Paul, pastor Holy Apostolic Church, (home) Goldsboro, N.C.
  • Busy Bee Shoe Shine Parlor, 513 East Nash, Jake Johnson proprietor
  • Buthine, Charles, tobacco worker, 108 North Pettigrew
  • Buthine, Shulor, laundress, 108 North Pettigrew
  • Bynum, Albert, Rev., 627 Suggs
  • Bynum, Alice, tobacco worker, 510 Stantonsburg Road
  • Bynum, Annie, cook, 113 Narroway
  • Bynum, Charlotte, midwife, 117 Manchester
  • Bynum, Charlotte, millhand, 632 Wiggins
  • Bynum, Dudley, barber, 913 Atlanta
  • Bynum, Estella, domestic, 807 Stantonsburg Road
  • Bynum, Herbert, laborer, 1000 Mercer
  • Bynum, Ida, domestic, 510 Stantonsburg Road
  • Bynum, John, laborer, 807 Stantonsburg Road
  • Bynum, Joseph, laborer, 113 Narroway
  • Bynum, Katherine, student, 532 East Nash
  • Bynum, Mack, tobacco worker, 532 East Nash
  • Bynum, Penny, domestic, 627 Suggs
  • Bynum, Thomas, tobacco worker, 117 Manchester
  • Bynum, William, tobacco worker, 510 Stantonsburg Road
  • Byrd, Minnie, cook, 402 South Goldsboro
  • Byrd, Thomas, laborer, 514 East Nash

Notes:

  • “Domestic” likely encompassed domestic work done both within one’s home (i.e. the work of a “housewife”) and for an outside employer.
  • In this era, there were no African-American firemen in Wilson in the “firefighter” sense. A “fireman” in this context was a stoker, i.e. someone responsible for tending the fire needed to run a boiler to heat a building or power a steam engine.
  • As is clear here, Barnes is by far the most common surname for African-Americans (and whites) in Wilson County. As a result, one should not assume that any two Barneses are related.
  • The streets now known as Atlantic Street and Washington Street were originally designated Atlanta Street and Booker T. Washington Avenue, both in honor of the “Wizard of Tuskegee,” who spoke in Wilson in 1910.
  • “Robinson” Street is, in fact, Robeson.
  • Whitley Street was a short, narrow block running alongside Williams Lumber Company between South Lodge Street and the terminus of South Spring Street. Per the 1922 Sanborn fire insurance map, it was lined with seven small houses on the south side of the street. Hominy Swamp ran perhaps 150′ behind.

Today, Whitley Street and the last stretch of South Douglas, below the Norfolk & Southern tracks, have been swallowed up by the site of Garris Evans Lumber Company.

  • Oettinger’s Dependable Shop was at 100-106 East Nash Street.
  • The Carolina Hotel was at 225 East Barnes Street.
  • Carrie Strickland’s beauty shop was at 528 East Nash Street.
  • James Younger Buchanan was a blacksmith and horse shoer who operated a shop at 209 East South Street.
  • Powell’s Cleaning Works was at 117 South Tarboro Street.
  • Walter S. Hines barber shop.
  • William M. Hines barber shop.
  • Mount Zion Holiness Church was on Lodge Street near Walnut.
  • Holy Apostolic Church was on Banks Street near Spring.

Current map courtesy of Google Maps.

Where we worked: 1922 — A.

City directories offer fine-grained looks at a city’s residents at short intervals. The 1922 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., directory reveals the types of work available to African-Americans during the booming tobacco era. This post is the first in an alphabetical series listing all “colored” directory entries for whom an occupation was listed. The address is the resident’s home, unless a business address is noted.

  • Adams, Bessie, domestic, 107 South Carroll
  • Adams, Ella, cook – Wilson Sanatorium, 410 South Goldsboro
  • Adams, Gertrude, proprietor – Lynnhaven Hotel, 537 East Nash
  • Adams, James, laborer, 105 West Walnut
  • Adams, Jesse, laborer, 1114 East Nash
  • Adams, Millie A., nurse – Wilson County Home
  • Adams, Ned, laborer, 704 Walnut
  • Adams, Roy, tobacco worker, 604 South Daniel
  • Aiken, Georgie, domestic, 120 Pender
  • Alexander, England, laborer, 511 Warren
  • Alexander, Lillie, domestic, 511 Warren
  • Allen, Henry, laborer, 523 South Lodge
  • Allen, Jesse, laborer, 527 South Lodge
  • Allen, Mary, laundress, 609 South Spring
  • Alston, Lucy, dressmaker, 417 Walnut
  • Alston, Robert T., jeweler, 552 East Nash
  • Alston, William, farmer, Mercer near Five Points
  • Anderson, Ed, porter, 213 Manchester
  • Anderson, Mabel E., dressmaker, 202 South Vick
  • Anderson, Mary, domestic, 608 Stantonsburg Road
  • Anthony, James, dressing, 113 Pender
  • Armstrong, Alice, tobacco worker, 521 South Lodge
  • Armstrong, Bessie, tobacco worker, 645 Wiggins
  • Armstrong, Ernest, barber, 510 Railroad
  • Armstrong, James, laundress, 523 Stemmery
  • Arrington, Allie, shoe polisher, 213 East Spruce
  • Arrington, Ernest, ice cutter, 705 South Lodge
  • Arrington, Levi V., carpenter, 206 North Reid
  • Arrington, Mary, laundress, 404 South Goldsboro
  • Arrington, Roxie, cook, 711 Robinson [Roberson]
  • Arrington, William, laborer, 711 Robinson
  • Artis, Columbus E., proprietor – The Delicatessen, 308 Pender
  • Artis, Emma, laundress, 310 East Walnut
  • Artis, Ezekial, drayman, 407 Bank
  • Artis, James, bellboy, 518 East Nash
  • Artis, Pauline, tobacco worker, 514 Smith
  • Artis, Peter, confectioner, 502 East Nash
  • Artis, Plummer, eating house, 901 East Nash
  • Artis, Sumner, cement worker, 1108 East Nash
  • Atkinson, James, tobacco worker, 307 Stantonsburg Road
  • Austin, Alice, tobacco worker, 208 East Jones
  • Austin, James, laborer, 507 East Green
  • Austin, Samuel, tobacco Worker, 208 East Jones
  • Aycock, Pat, tobacco worker, 414 South Lodge

Notes:

  • “Domestic” likely encompassed domestic work done both within one’s home (i.e. the work of a “housewife”) and for an outside employer.
  • The Wilson Sanatorium, founded in 1896, was Wilson’s first hospital. It was located on East Nash Street next to what is now Imagination Station.
  • The 1922 Sanborn map reveals that the Lynnhaven Hotel was a boarding house occupying the second and third floors of a four-front commercial building at 535-541 East Nash.

  • The Wilson County Home was likely the “poor house” located beyond southern city limits on Goldsboro Street.
  • A “dresser,” perhaps, was a valet.
  • Wilson Ice & Fuel Company was located on South Lodge at the Norfolk & Southern Railroad.

Your father probably taught you to do this.

In 1924, “White Barbers of Wilson” placed an ad in the Daily Times complaining of white customers — women, even — patronizing African-American barber shops. Hair-cutting had  long been dominated by black men, and white barbers keenly felt the loss of caste that their trade entailed. After chastising “the public” for going to “dark skin shops,” they shook a challenging finger: “Ladies and gentlemen, we believe when you see the thing the way we do you will be a full blooded Southerner, and join the ranks of a true born American citizen.”

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Wilson Daily Times, 5 September 1924.

It’s got a little twang to it.

Jesse A. Jacobs Jr. worked as a janitor at Five Points (later Winstead) School and did gardening odd jobs at the home of school superintendent Charles L. Coon. His great-niece Hattie Henderson Ricks, whom he adopted, told this story:

“Papa was up there cutting grass. ‘Go in the house, and ask ‘em for some water, a pitcher.’  Talking ‘bout my daddy wanted some water. And the first time I ever seen a grapefruit was there.  I said I’d never forget that.  ‘Cause I went in that house and asked for some water, and I said ‘Daddy said’ – I called him Papa.  Anyway, ‘he wanted to know if he could have some water.’  And the lady said, ‘Yeah,’ and she got a pitcher and a glass.  And I took it on out there, and then I just sit on the steps.  So Papa stopped and drinked him some water. But I was just standing there while they was fixing the water, and I looked on that table, and all ‘round the table there by the plate they had a salt cellar and half a grapefruit and a cherry sitting in the middle.  And that thing just looked so pretty, looked so good.  And I said, ‘Unh, that’s a big orange!’ I said, ‘Well, next time I go to the store I’m gon get me one, too.’  And sho’ nuff, I asked Papa, when we left – I don’t remember whether it was, it wont that particular time, but we come out and were on our way to Edmundson’s store in Five Points, and he wanted me to go in and get a plug of tobacco. Part of a plug.  And tell Old Man Edmundson to put it on the bill. So he waited, he was out there on a wagon, he had a little horse, and I went in and told Mr. Edmundson Papa wanted a, whatever amount it was, he didn’t get a whole plug, ‘cause I think it was three or four sections to a plug of tobacco, and for him to put it on the bill, and I said, ‘He said I could have a orange.  And put that on the bill.’  And it was boxes sitting up – I’ll never forget it – the boxes sitting up with all the oranges sitting up in there.  And I got the biggest one out of the group.  The one that wasn’t even orange.  I made sure I was gon get me a big orange!  I got that and come on back out there and got on the wagon and coming from Five Points to almost home, I was peeling that thing and peeling it ‘til I got it off, and it was sour, ‘Ugh, that’s a sour orange!’  I never seen a orange that sour. And I said, ‘Now, that didn’t look like, that’s a light-complected … yellow.’ But it was still like a orange, and it was so big.

“From then on I didn’t want no big orange. Now I always get little oranges. Today I don’t buy no big orange.  ‘Cause the little ones is sweeter than the big ones.  But, honey, that was a grapefruit, and that was the first I’d ever known it was a grapefruit.  We ain’t never had no grapefruit.  And so, I told Mama that was a, ugh, sour orange.  And I told her ‘bout what the Coons had on their table when I went up there.  And she said, ‘Well, that was a grapefruit.’  ‘A grapefruit?,’  I said, ‘well, what’s a grapefruit?’  And she said, ‘It’s like a big orange.  But you have to put sugar on it most time.  It’s a little sour.  It’s got a little twang to it.’  She said, ‘But your daddy didn’t never like none, so I don’t care that much about it.’  And I said, ‘A grapefruit?  I got myself a grapefruit.’  I said, ‘The cherries, where they get the cherries?,’ I said. ‘That little red thing where was on there.’  She said, ‘Well, you buy ‘em in bottles from the store.’ But, anyway, it was sour, but I learned the taste, you put a little sugar on it, makes a little bit sweeter.  I swear, Lord, I think about those things that I did when I was little.”

——

The house with the grapefruit was at 109 North Rountree Street in Wilson’s College Park neighborhood. Charles L. Coon’s house has been demolished, but was catalogued in Bainbridge and Ohno’s Wilson, North Carolina: Historic Buildings Survey (1980):

“This house was built c.1915 for Wilson’s foremost educator, Charles L. Coon. He served as superintendent of the Wilson Graded School from 1907 until his death in 1927 and was County School superintendent for the last fifteen years of this period. Coon, credited with the creation of a model school system in Wilson, also served on the North Carolina Child Labor Committee, the State Teachers Assembly, the editorial board of the North Carolina Historical Review and was the author of North Carolina Schools and Academies 1790-1840 and Public Schools of Wilson County. His house is sturdy and simple. The tile roof is unusual in a house of this vintage, and it enriches the texture of the facade. The front porch was constructed in typical Bungalow style, with square flared columns supporting the overhanging hipped roof.”

——

Hattie H. Ricks, circa 1920, probably a few years after she first tasted grapefruit.

Hill’s Wilson, N.C., City Directory (1916).

  • Plug tobacco is made by pressing cured tobacco in a sweet (often molasses-based) syrup. The resulting sheet of pressed tobacco was cut into “plugs.” Edmundson likely carried locally manufactured product.

Adapted from interview of Hattie Henderson Ricks by Lisa Y. Henderson, all rights reserved.

Negro ministers recruit colored workers.

To address the acute labor shortage created by World War II, the Wilson Colored Ministerial Association came to the aid of tobacco factories and volunteered to recruit workers. “Three meetings of the colored ministers have already been held at the Darden funeral home, and colored church workers are making a house to house canvass for workers as a result of this meeting.”

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Wilson Daily Times, 22 August 1944.