Mitchell

State v. William Baker and Patsey Mitchell.

At Fall Term 1856 of Wilson County Superior Court, a grand jury charged William Baker and Patsey Mitchell, both of Wilson County, “being lewd and vicious persons not united together in the bonds of marriage” before and after 1 April 1856 “unlawfully lewdly and lasciviously associate bed and cohabit together … to the evil example of all others.”  William Felton and Elisha Owens were subpoenaed as witnesses, and jury foreman William Ellis returned a true bill to the clerk of court.

William Baker was white; Martha “Patsey” Mitchell was African-American.

——

In the 1850 census of Edgecombe County, North Carolina: Willis Hagins, 50, and Patsy Mitchell, 45, and her children Sally, 20, Rufus, 9, Amanda 6, Wm., 2, and Mary, 1. Next door, laborer Wm. Baker, 26, white, in the household of Joseph Peacock.

In the 1860 census of Gardners township, Wilson County: Martha Mitchell, 44, and her children William, 13, Franklin, 11, George, 10, Thomas, 9, and Martha, 6. Also in Gardners, William Baker, 30, in the household of John Bynum, 22.

[A note: During my recent visit to North Carolina, I stopped for several hours for a long-overdue visit to the State Archives in Raleigh. I was pressed for time, so I skimmed folders with an eye for names of African-Americans (or indicia like “col.”), then flagged those documents for copies that I could study later. In the Adultery records, I pulled just a few years from 1856-1868 and ultimately copied only six or seven sets of documents. Baker-Mitchell is the fourth of them that involves an interracial relationship. The fact of these relationships does not surprise, but their seeming overrepresentation among prosecutions for adultery does. Perhaps it’s no more than a fluke of my search. I look forward to a return visit to search further.]

Adultery Records-1857, Miscellaneous Records, Wilson County Records, North Carolina State Archives.

The obituary of Lena Mitchell Kent, 104.

Screen Shot 2019-08-22 at 5.51.27 PM.png

Lena Mitchell Kent, 104, of Wilson, died Tuesday, July 30, 2019. Funeral will be 1 p.m. Friday at Mount Zion Progressive Primitive Baptist Church. Burial will follow in Hamilton Burial Gardens. Visitation will be 7 p.m. Thursday at Carrons Funeral Home. Arrangements are by Carrons Funeral Home.

Wilson Daily Times, 31 July 2019.

——

On 15 December 1888, Laurence Mitchel, 21, of Cross Roads township, son of Primus Mitchel, married Ester Darden, 18, of Cross Roads township, daughter of Martin and Jane Darden, at Primus Mitchel’s in Cross Roads.

In the 1900 census of Cross Roads township, Wilson County: farm laborer Laurence Michel, 29; wife Easter, 24; and children Alonza, 8, Nettie, 6, Eddie, 4, and Babe, 1.

In the 1910 census of Black Creek township, Wilson County: Lawrence Mitchell, 40; wife Easter, 36; and children Alonzo, 19, Nellie, 17, Eddie, 13, Jesse, 11, Bettie, 7, Coy S., 5, Mattie, 3, and an infant, 11 months.

In the 1920 census of Cross Roads township, Wilson County: farmer Lawrence Mitchell, 30; wife Louisa, 30; and children Altie, 29, Bettie, 17, Colasta, 14, Mattie, 12, Wiley, 9, Cleveland, 6, and Lena, 4.

In the 1930 census of Cross Roads township, Wilson County: farmer Lawrence Mitchel, 57; wife Louisa, 45; and children Cleveland, 17, Lena, 15, and Easter, 16.

On 9 October 1937, in Smithfield, Johnston County, Joseph Kent, 25, of Lucama, son of Joseph Kent and Minnie Kent, married Lena Mitchell, 22, of Lucama, daughter of Lawrence Mitchell and Easter Mitchell.

In the 1940 census of Springhill township, Wilson County: Joe Kent, 27, and wife Lena, 24.

In 1940, Joe Kent Jr. registered for the World War II draft in Wilson County. Per his registration card, he was born 8 October 1912 in Wilson; lived at R.F.D. #1, Lucama; was married to Lena Kent, wife; and worked for T.R. Smith, Lucama.

Bunyan Barnes’ apprentices.

Under laws authorizing the involuntary apprenticeship of poor orphans and the children of unmarried parents, county courts in antebellum North Carolina removed thousands of children from the homes to be bound to serve their neighbors. Hundreds of indentures dot the pages of Wayne County court minute books, and free children of color were disproportionately pulled into the system. Apprenticeship created an inexpensive, long-term and tractable labor supply for white yeoman farmers, many of whom could not (or could not yet) afford to purchase enslaved people.

Wayne County lost its northern tip to the newly created Wilson County in 1855. By pinpointing the locations of the farms of the men (and rare women) to whom they were indentured, we are able to identify the following free children of color as residents of the area that would become Wilson County’s Black Creek township and parts of Crossroads township.

——

Bunyan Barnes was born about 1809 and died before 1870. Per Wilson County Founding Families, S. Powell and H. Powell, editors, Barnes was the first postmaster of Bardin’s Depot (now Black Creek) and owned property along the Wilson and Goldsboro Road (now Frank Price Church Road) between Canal Branch and Dickerson Mill Branch in Black Creek township.

  • Stephen Mitchell, 8, and Warren Mitchell, 7, were bound to Bunyon Barnes in 1833.
  • John Hagans, 15, was bound to Bunyan Barnes in 1844.

Apprentice Records, Wayne County Records, North Carolina State Archives; federal censuses.

Studio shots, no. 96: Amanda Edwards Mitchell.

Screen Shot 2018-10-07 at 6.42.32 PM.png

Amanda Edwards Mitchell (1869-ca. 1905).

In the 1880 census of Rocky Mount township, Nash County: farmer Rob Edwards, 40; wife Sallie, 38; children Waitie, 20, Mary E., 19, Lucy, 17, Georgeanna, 15, Jerryhill, 12, Mandy, 11, Morning, 9, Charity, 7, Cora, 5, Maddieann, 2, and Buckhill, 4 months; and grandson Aaron, 1.

On 24 December 1889, James Mitchell and Amanda Edwards, both 20, applied for a marriage license in Nash County, North Carolina.

In the 1900 census of Toisnot township, Wilson County: farmer James G. Mitchell, 31; wife Armanda, 30; children Chestar, 9, Regenia, 8, Henretta, 6, William R., 4, and Dewry, 2; and widowed mother Roset Mitchell, 50.

Amanda Edwards Mitchell died between 1900 and 1910. In the 1910 census of Toisnot township, Wilson County: farmer James G. Mitchell, 38; mother Rosa, 58; and children Kester R., 14, Cynthia, 14, Robert L., 12, Jimmie D., 10, and Lelia B., 8.

Cinderilla Cotton died 27 December 1928 in Toisnot township, Wilson County. Per her death certificate, she was 35 years old; was born in Wilson County to James G. Mitchell of Wilson County and Armanda Edwards of Nash County; was married to Sidney Cotton; and was buried at William Chapel Church cemetery.

Robert Lee Mitchell died 18 October 1875 in Wilson. Per his death certificate, he was born 17 April 1896 to James Gray Mitchell and Amanda Edwards; was a widower; was a farmer; and resided in Elm City.

Photo courtesy of Ancestry.com user grannysmess.

 

The Mitchell family reach a compromise.

3 12 1938

Pittsburgh Courier, 12 March 1938.

For more about Rev. Richard A.G. Foster, see here and here and here.

Georgia Farmer Mitchell died 18 February 1938 at Mercy Hospital. Per her death certificate, she was a 15 year-old school girl; was born in Wilson to Floyd Mitchell and Lucy Farmer, both of Wilson County; and resided at 409 South Warren Street. She died of acute appendicitis and an intestinal blockage.

Screen Shot 2017-10-25 at 10.12.26 PM

Rev. Foster, probably in the late 1930s or early ’40s, perhaps at Yale University, his alma mater.

Photograph courtesy of Sheila Coleman-Castells.

Teachers College graduates.

Screen Shot 2017-08-08 at 8.29.08 PM

Screen Shot 2017-08-08 at 8.28.38 PM

Fayetteville State Teachers College Catalog 1944-45 (1944).

The 1944 graduating class of Fayetteville State Teachers College included Clyde Joan Dickerson, Nora Allen Mitchell and Helen Elveta Reid, all of whom graduated Darden High School in 1938. In addition, their FSTC classmate Azzalee Mallette of Wilmington, North Carolina, married Alvis A. Hines, Darden ’37, in Wilson on 5 April 1952.

 

 

Rev. William J. Moore.

Toward the end of his life, Rev. William John Moore served as pastor of Saint John’s A.M.E. Zion Church in Wilson and Presiding Elder of the Wilmington District, Cape Fear Conference, of the A.M.E.Z. Church. In younger years, however, he had been a vital force in establishing the denomination throughout the region, as this entry in J.W. Hood’s One Hundred Years of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church; or, the Centennial of African Methodism makes clear:

wjm-1

wjm-2

wjm-3

Rev. W.H. Davenport’s The Anthology of Zion Methodism, published in 1925, notes: “The Autobiography of Rev. William J. Moore, D.D., is interesting from cover to cover. Zion Methodism had its inception in the South in New Bern, N. C. Eliza Gardner, Mary Anderson and others of the Daughters of Conference of New England raised money to send Rev. J. W. Hood to the South. Shortly after his arrival he and Moore met and there began a friendship between them which was beautiful in its sincerity and purity. The early struggles of Moore’s life are intimately connected with the early struggles of Zion Methodism in North Carolina. The book is not cast in a high literary mold, but is a rugged and straightforward statement of a religious frontiersman and pioneer.”

——

Moore was in Wilson as early as 1892, when his wife Sarah is listed among gift-givers celebrating the marriage of Samuel Vick and Annie Washington.

In the 1900 census of Wilson, Wilson County: minister William J. Moore, 64; wife Sarah J., 60; daughter Mary E., 29; and grandsons Alfred Hill, 12, and Wilbur, 3.

On 6 December 1906, Mary E. Moore, 29, daughter of W.J. and Sallie Moore, married Willie Mitchell, 24, son of Wiley and Betsy Mitchell, in Wilson. Judge Mitchell applied for the license, and Rev. N.D. King performed the ceremony in the presence of L.A. Moore, Isaac Stone, W.J. Moore and Mrs. Burtie Farmer.

On 2 January 1908, Alex Moore, 38, and Mary Magett, 26, were married in Wilson by Methodist minister G.A. Wood in the presence of Martha Wood, Joseph Sutton and C.G. Lewis.

screen-shot-2017-03-01-at-8-59-30-pm

Hill’s Wilson, N.C, Directory (1908).

In the 1910 census of Wilson, Wilson County: on Stantonsburg Street, Willy Mitchell, 34, odd jobs laborer, wife Mary, 39, and son Wilton, 13.

In the 1910 census of Wilson, Wilson County: on Grace Street, Alex Moore, 46, factory laborer, wife Mary, 28, and son Charlie, 3.

Rev. Moore drafted and executed a will on 15 November 1913.

007640343_01225-2

In it, he gave his children Mary and Alex a house and five lots in Wilson (which later revoked) and “all the endowment money ” coming from the Masonic Lodge, the Eastern Star Chapter, and the Brotherhood of the A.M.E. Zion Church. He further passed to Mary his interest in the mortgage held on property in Pamlico County, North Carolina, and named her his executrix. One of the witnesses, New Bern native Rev. Clinton D. Hazel, also served as Presiding Elder of Wilmington District.

In the 1920 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 314 Stantonsburg Street, widowed cook Mary Mitchell, 46; barber Alex Moore, 43, his wife Mary, 38, a laundress, and their son Charles, 44. [The 1920 Wilson city directory lists Alex as an employee of M.D. Cannon‘s barber shop.]

On 9 November 1920, Mary E. Mitchell drafted a will with very terms. She had three insurance policies and specified that from the policy for $121.00 on the Durham Company [North Carolina Mutual] $50 be paid to Dr. W.A. Mitchner and $50 to Fannie Simpson “who nursed me last winter.” She owned “a house and some lots on Stantonsburg Street in the town of Wilson.” They were to go to Sylvia Best on the condition that she live in or rent out the house for ten years. “If at the time of the expiration of said ten years my son Alfred Hill, whom I have not heard from in a number of years, has not returned to Wilson,” the land would pass in fee to Best. If Alfred returned, he would receive the lot on which the house was located, and Sylvia the best. If he returned earlier than ten years, he was to allow Sylvia and her family to live with him until the ten years expired. W.A. Mitchner was named executor.

Mary E. Mitchell died 5 February 1921 in Wilson. Per her death certificate, she was divorced; resided on Stantonsburg Street; worked as a laundress; and was born 10 May 1865 in Beaufort County, North Carolina, to W. John Moore of Washington, North Carolina, and Sarah Moore. Informant was Alex Moore.

Mary Moore Mitchell’s will entered probate on 14 February 1921.

Alex Moore died 28 December 1928 in Wilson. Per his death certificate, he resided at 108 Manchester Street; was a widower; worked as a common laborer; was 60 years old; and was born in Wilson to John and Sallie Ann Moore, both of New Bern, North Carolina. Charles Moore was informant.

North Carolina Wills and Estates, 1665-1998 [database on-line], http://www.ancestry.com.

One-third acre on Lodge Street to Susan Mitchell.

This deed made this the 14th June 1875 by Charles Battle and wife Leah to Susan Mitchell all of the County of Wilson and State of North Carolina Witnesseth that for and in consideration of the sum of five hundred dollars in hand paid the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged the said Charles Battle and wife Leah have bargained and sold and by these presents do bargain sell alien and convey to Susan Mitchell and her heirs that certain piece parcel or lot of land in Wilson on the continuation of Lodge street beginning at Thomas Johnstons line running thence at right angles with said Lodge street and along said Johnstons line seventy yards to a stake thence a line parallel with Lodge street sixty five feet to a stake then a line at right angles with said Street seventy yds, thence with the Street sixty five feet to the beginning containing one third of one acre more or less to have and to hold the same together with the improvements privileges and appurtenances there unto belonging to the said Susan Mitchell and her heirs and the Charles Battle and wife Leah do for themselves their heirs executors administrators and assigns covenants to and with the said Susan Mitchell her heirs executors administrators and assigns to warrant the title herein made against the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever. In testimony whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names and affixd our seals    Charles (X) Battle, Leah (X) Battle

—–

State of North Carolina, Wilson County } In the Probate Court.

On this the 11th day of June in the year 1875 before me H.C. Moss Judge of Probate for said County, personally appeared Charles Battle and Leah Battle persons described in, and who signed the annexed conveyance, and severally acknowledged the due execution thereof for the purpose therein expressed. And thereupon the said Leah Battle being by me privately examined apart from her said husband touching her voluntary consent thereto acknowledged that she executed the same freely and without fear or compulsion of her said husband and do now voluntarily assent thereto and hereby relinquish her right of dower in said land. Thereupon let the said Deed and this certificate be registered.   /s/ H.C. Moss, Probate Judge

Received & Registered June 19, 1875

——

screen-shot-2017-02-11-at-8-55-26-pm

1880 census of Town of Wilson, Wilson County.

Deed Book 11, page 35, Wilson County Register of Deeds Office, Wilson.

The last will and testament of Eva Mitchell.

As described here, Sallie Ann Mitchell‘s will did not emerge until nearly 20 years after death in 1926. Oddly, however, a different will was in fact entered into probate, along with that of sister Eva Mitchell, in 1929.

On 29 December 1926, Mack D. Cannon, J. Wesley Rogers and Lelia B. Young appeared in Wilson County Superior Court to swear that they were well acquainted with both Eva and Sallie Mitchell and recognized their signatures. Eva’s and Sallie’s niece and brother Severine and Albert Mitchell swore that they had found Eva’s “among the valuable papers” on the dresser in the room she had occupied for years and Sallie’s in a book on her dresser in the room she had occupied. On the basis of these affidavits, the clerk of court admitted both wills to probate.

004778531_00104

Eva’s will, drafted in 1923, was simple and straightforward, if idiosyncratic:

My interest in the home to Lee Mitchell, Bro, Severene Mitchell, Lester Mitchell, my nephew & neice. All policies made to me be paid to Lee & Lest & Sallie Mitchell, when due. All bills settled by them for me anything left is theirs forever. This 4 day of Nov 1923.  /s/ Eva Mitchell  

P.S. House to be used as the Family home just as at present Floyd & Albert to live here as long as they wish.

Sallie’s was similarly brief:

My interest in the house to Albert Floyd and Effie Brother’s and Sister to have and to hold with out sale and after their death back to Severene neice and Lester nephew and their heairs forever and them to all ways have a home here as long as they live this is my last will this the 29 day of January 1926. /s/ Sallie Mitchell

Two months later, Sallie Mitchell drafted a completely different will. Three days later, she died. If the first will entered probate, why the hullabaloo about the second? How many “family homes” were there? Were Eva and Sallie claiming ownership of the same dwelling?  Per their death certificates, below, both lived at 540 East Nash Street. If so, and each actually had a viable claim, how were their last wishes reconciled?

——

In the 1880 census of Nahunta township, Wayne County: farmer Ed Mitchell, 43, wife Anarcha, 31, and children Walter, 12, Willie, 8, Charley, 6, Sallie, 8, Eddie, 4, Albert 2, and Effa, 6 months.

In the 1900 census of Wilson, Wilson County: widow Jennie Mitchell, 51, with children Walter T., 32, Sallie Ann, 28, E. Augustus, 24, Effie C., 20, Eva M., 18, Floyd A., 16, Lee A., 14, and Adic M., 12.

On 3 July 1901, Walter Scott Mitchell, 33, son of Edward J. and Annie Peacock Mitchell, married Elizabeth Helms, 27, daughter of Madison and Flora Helms, at Jordan Taylor‘s house in Wilson. Fred M. Davis, Baptist minister, performed the ceremony in the presence of Ed Pool, Jordan Taylor and Mary Brooks.

On 5 February 1902, Albert M. Mitchell, 24, son of Edward J. and Annie Mitchell, married Cora White[head?], 18, daughter of William and Jane Whitehead. Fred M. Davis, Missionary Baptist minister, performed the ceremony in the presence of Walter S. Mitchell, Mary Whitehead and Jane Whitehead.

In the 1910 census of Wilson, Wilson County: widow Annie Mitchell, 60, children Sallie, 30, Eddy, 28, Albert, 26, Eva, 24, and Floyd, 22, and grandchildren Sevren L., 9, and Lester Mitchell, 5.

In the 1920 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 549 Nash Street, widow Annie Mitchell, 71,  children Sallie, 46, Eddie, 44, Albert, 42, Eva, 36, and Floyd, 34, niece Severana, 18, and nephew Lester, 16.

Edward Augustia Mitchell died 22 November 1921 in Wilson. Per his death certificate, he was born 9 January 1875 in Wayne County to Edward Mitchell and Annie Peacock. Eva Mitchell was informant.

Eva Mitchell Haywood died 1 October 1925.

s123_180-1191

Sallie Mitchell died 29 March 1926, three days after drafting her will.

s123_186-2246-2

Albert Mitchell died 9 July 1938 at Mercy Hospital in Wilson. Per his death certificate, he was a widower; was born about 1878 in Wayne County to Edward Mitchell and Anna Peacock; worked as a laborer for Imperial Tobacco Company; and resided at 540 East Nash. Effie Hamlin of Farmville, North Carolina, was informant.

Floyd Alfonzo Mitchell died 18 January 1944 at his home at 540 East Nash Street. Per his death certificate, he was born 2 March 1884 in Wayne County to Edward Mitchell and Annie Barnes; worked as a carpenter; and he was single.

Effie C. Hamlin died 3 November 1957 at Mercy Hospital in Wilson. Per her death certificate, she was born 11 December 1879 in Wayne County to Ann Mitchell and an unknown father; resided in Farmville, North Carolina; and was married to Austin Hamlin.  Mary Howell, 1202 Washington Street, Wilson, was informant.

screen-shot-2016-12-31-at-3-57-42-pm

1922 Sanborn map showing 540 (later 549) East Nash Street, Wilson.

North Carolina Wills and Estates, 1665-1998 [database on-line], http://www.ancestry.com.

The popular (and peripatetic) Ed Mitchell.

screen-shot-2016-11-22-at-8-21-14-pm

Wilson Mirror, 18 January 1888.

mitchell

Wilson Mirror, 7 May 1890.

screen-shot-2016-11-22-at-8-24-19-pm

Wilson Mirror, 30 July 1890.

screen-shot-2016-11-22-at-8-25-39-pm

Wilson Mirror, 25 February 1891.

mitch-2

Wilson Mirror, 20 May 1891.

screen-shot-2016-11-22-at-8-27-28-pm

Wilson Advance, 27 August 1891.

screen-shot-2016-11-22-at-8-29-06-pm

Wilson Advance, 14 January 1892.

screen-shot-2016-11-22-at-8-30-40-pm

Wilson Advance, 13 April 1893.

mitch

Democratic Banner (Dunn, N.C.), 31 December 1902.

screen-shot-2016-11-22-at-8-32-48-pm

Wilson Daily Times, 21 October 1910.

——

In the 1880 census of Wilson, Wilson County: on Spring Street, washerwoman Susan Mitchell, 47, with children Lucy, 19, and Louiza, 15, both house servants, Eddy, 12, and Joseph, 9. On 18 October 1880, Lucy Mitchell, 19, married Mashal Powell, 18, at Susan Mitchell’s house. Witnesses were Small Blunt, Mary Blunt and Susan Mitchell.

In the 1900 census of Wilson, Wilson County: widow Susiana Mitchel, 65, a “grannie,” and son Edd, 33, a barber. [A granny-woman was a midwife.]

In the 1910 census of Wilson, Wilson County: Susan Mitchell, 75, lived alone in a rented house on the N&S Railroad. In the 1910 census of Averasboro, Harnett County: on Wilmington & Magnolia Road, barber Edward Mitchell, 44, wife Allice M., 24, and daughter Loucile D., 6 months.

Edward Mitchell died 5 February 1918 in Dunn, Harnett County, North Carolina. Per his death certificate, he was born in Wilson to Ed and Susan Mitchell, was married, and worked as a barber. He was buried in Dunn.

In the 1920 census of Averasboro, Harnett County: at 311 Magnolia Avenue, widow Alice Mitchell, 33, with daughters Glydis, 10, and Doris, 9.