Migration

Freeman brothers.

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Ernest Aaron Freeman (1890-1970) and Joseph Thomas Freeman (1894-1991) were sons of Julius F. and Eliza Daniels Freeman and younger brothers of Oliver N. Freeman and Julius F. Freeman Jr.

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Tom and Ernest Freeman.

In the 1900 census of Wilson, Wilson County: 56 year-old carpenter Julius Freeman, wife Eliza, 46, and children Elizabeth, 19, Nestus, 17, Junius, 11, Ernest, 9, Tom, 6, Daniel, 4, and Ruth, 4 months.

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Ernest A. Freeman.

In the 1910 census of Wilson, Wilson County: house carpenter Julius Freeman, 65; wife Eliza, 54; and children Nestus, 28, bricklayer; Ollie, 18, Daniel, 14, John, 7, Junius, 22, Ernest, 20, and Thomas, 17.

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Joseph T. Freeman.

Ernest Freeman registered for the World War I draft in Cleveland, Ohio. Per his registration card, he was born 3 November 1890 in Wilson, N.C.; resided at 2169 East 90th Street, Cleveland; worked as a sailor for the Pitts. Steam Ship Co. on the the steamer D.M. Clemson; and was single.

In the 1920 census of Cleveland, Ohio: at 2339 East 49th Street, steel foundry laborer Earnest Freeman, 30; wife Gertrude, 26; and daughter Gertrude, 11 months.

In the 1920 census of Los Angeles, California: at 1501 Essex Street, North Carolina-born post office clerk Joseph T. Freeman, 26, a lodger.

In the 1930 census of Cleveland, Ohio: at 2258 Ashland Road, factory clerk Earnest Freeman, 39; wife Gertrude, 35; and children Evelyn, 11, Eanest, 7, and Arthur J., 10 months; as well as boarder Myrtle Bufford, 35, a domestic servant. Freeman owned the house, valued at $4000, and rented apartments in it to two families.

In the 1930 census of Los Angeles, California: at 1220 – 33rd Street, mail clerk Joseph T. Freeman, 34, and wife Phyllis N., 31, cafe waitress. Joseph was born in North Carolina, and Phyllis was born in Minnesota to a Danish immigrant parent.

In the 1940 census of Cleveland, Ohio: at 2211 East 81st Street, National Steel foreman Ernest A. Freeman, 49; wife Gertrude; children Evelyn G. 21, Ernest Jr., 17, and Arthur J., 10.

In 1942, Earnest Aaron Freeman registered for the World War II draft in Cleveland. Per his registration card, he was born 3 November 1890 in Wilson, N.C.; resided at 2211 East 81st Street, Cleveland; worked for National Acme Company, East 131st and Coit Road; and his nearest relative was Mrs. Gertrude Freeman.

In 1942, Joseph Thomas Freeman registered for the World War II draft. Per his registration card, he lived at 1248 West Jefferson, Los Angeles; was born 31 July 1894, Wilson, North Carolina; worked for the U.S. Postal Department, Terminal Annex, Mary Street and Alameda Street, Los Angeles; and his contact was Mrs. Sophia Freeman.

Ernest A. Freeman died 17 December 1970 in Cleveland, Ohio.

Joseph T. Freeman died 8 February 1991 and was buried at Fort Bliss National Cemetery, Fort Bliss, Texas.

Photographs of Freeman boys and teenaged E. Freeman courtesy of Ancestry user JaFreeman34; photo of J.T. Freeman as young adult courtesy of Ancestry user rcbrown1592rcb; The Official Roster of Ohio Soldiers, Sailors, and Marines in the World War, 1917-18, The F.J. Heer Printing Co. (1926), online at Ancestry.com.

Retired master cabinetmaker.

JOHNIE W. JONES, 83, a retired master cabinetmaker with the General Services Administration and a resident of the Washington area since 1944, died of cancer July 8 at the home of a daughter in New Carrollton.

Mr. Jones, who lived in Washington, was born in Wilson County, N.C. He went to work for the federal government when he moved here.

In 1969, he received a plaque from Lyndon B. Johnson for work he did for the president as he was preparing to retire and move to Texas.

Mr. Jones’ wife, Marie Lofton Jones, died in 1954.

Survivors include six daughters, Cecelia J. Krider of New Carrollton, Ruby M. Drake and Annetta Jones, both of Washington, Shirley J. Rollins of Capitol Heights, Dr. Scarlette J. Wilson of San Francisco, and Joan J. Bullock of Upper Marlboro; two sons, Johnie W. Jones of Washington and Charles A. Jones of Capitol Heights; three sisters, Susie Carpenter and Ruth Hunter, both of Washington, and Naomi Lucas of Capitol Heights; one brother, Grover Jones of Sims, N.C.; 14 grandchildren and 16 great-grandchildren.

— Washington Post, 10 July 1987.

——

In the 1920 census of Old Fields township, Wilson County: on Jones Hill Road, farmer J.A. [John Alsey] Jones, 42; wife Bettie, 28; and children Johnie W., 16, Grover, 7, Susie, 5, Maomie, 4, and Ruth, 1. [J.A. Jones, 34, son of John A. and Susan Jones, of Old Fields, married Bettie Hinnant, 21, daughter of Vandorn and Janie Hinnant, of Springhill township, on 5 May 1912. Missionary Baptist minister William H. Mitchiner performed the ceremony. (This was John Jones’ second marriage.)]

On 11 October 1926, John William Jones, 23, of Black Creek, married Marie Lofton, 18, of Black Creek. A. Bynum performed the ceremony in the presence of Sylvester Woodard, R.H. Lofton and J.A. Jones.

In the 1930 census of Black Creek, Wilson County: farmer John W. Jones, 26; wife Maria, 20, a farm laborer; and daughters Celie Mae, 3, and Ruby Lee, 2.

In the 1940 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 1107 Queen Street, tobacco factory carpenter Johnnie Jones, 36; wife Marie, 30, cook; and children Ruby Lee, 11, Cecilia, 13, Johnnie, 9, Charles, 7, Joan, 3, and Jacqueline, 1. Marie reported that she was born in Mount Olive, North Carolina.

In 1942, Johnie William Jones registered for the World War II draft in Wilson. Per his registration card, he resided at 1107 Queen Street; was born 18 September 1903 in Wilson; his contact person was Mrs. Marie Jones, 1107 Queen Street; and he was employed by Noy 4750 Housing Project, New River, Onslow County, North Carolina.

 

Loafers are not wanted here.

JOSEPH ELLIS.

I am from Wilson, N.C.; I have been here three weeks. I found employment readily, and a good home. I live and work with Mr. F.B. Gardner, a good farmer in Russell township, Putnam county. He pays me $13 per month until spring, and then he will give me more. I find him a very kind and good man to me in the way of accommodations. Mr. Gardner could not get possession of his own house for me until the first of March, but he procured from his brother-in-law, Mr. D. Evans, a good and comfortable house for us until he can get the use of his. I am well pleased with my situation, and like this country finely. I would not go back to North Carolina for any consideration, and I would advise all my friends in that State to come to this county, as they can better their condition. But they should not come unless they expect to do good work, as loafers are not wanted here.

——

In the 1880 census of Russell township, Putnam County, Indiana: laborer Joseph Ellis, 27, and wife Prissa, 23, both born in North Carolina.

In the 1900 census of Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana: widowed day laborer Joseph Ellis, 48; son Theodore, 16, and daughters Margaret, 10, and Vera, 8.

Senate Report 693, Part 2, 2nd Session, 46th Congress.  Proceedings of the Select Committee of the United States Senate to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States (1880).  U.S. Congressional Serial Set.

As different as chalk and cheese.

WILLIAM CROOM.

The man is working for Daniel Evans, near Russellville, Putnam County. He has a nice brick house to live in, has a nice garden spot, fire-wood, and a team to haul it, a milch-cow and food to feed her, and $15 in cash each month; in all, equivalent to about $24 a month. He is delighted with Indiana, and urges that all his people come to our State as soon as they can get there. In an interview with me, he said: “Neither you nor any other Republican in Greencastle ever said a word to me about voting, nor asked me how I was gaining to vote; nor have I known of your asking any of our people how they were going to vote. All that has been said to us was about finding us homes and work, and taking care of us. They have done all for us they could, and our people are grateful to them for it. None of us want to go back to North Carolina; neither does any man who is honest and has sound judgment. I would take my oath on that. Most of our people who have come here are religious. I belong to the Missionary Baptist church, and am a licensed preacher. I came here to better the condition of myself and family, and to raise them respectably. I have found it better than I expected. Indeed, I don’t think that I hardly deserve as good treatment as I have received and am still receiving. From my own experience, I know that my people in North Carolina could greatly better their condition by coming here, and if they knew the facts they would come.

In a subsequent interview Croom said:

“I came from Wilson County, North Carolina. Have been here several weeks. I came because I had heard that colored men could do better here than in North Carolina, and I find that it was a true statement. There is as much difference between there and here as there is between chalk and cheese. It is altogether different. Here we are men just like the whites, get good wages, have good homes, and there are good schools for our children. The climate is no worse for us here than there. I have not yet seen as cold weather in Indiana as I have seen in North Carolina. And then the people are so different. They are just as kind to us as they can be. It seems as though they can’t do enough for us.”

——

Possibly: William Croom died 17 July 1910 in Indianapolis, Center township, Marion County, Indiana. Per his death certificate, he was 57 years old; was born in North Carolina to Sam Croom and Cherry Latta; was married to Diana Croom; and was a farmer. He was buried in Mount Jackson cemetery.

Cora Allen died 9 November 1925 at Provident Sanitarium in Indianapolis, Center township, Marion County, Indiana. Per her death certificate, she was born 15 May 1884 in Indiana to William Croom and Diana Ellis, both of North Carolina and was married to James Allen. She was buried in Floral Park cemetery.

Senate Report 693, Part 2, 2nd Session, 46th Congress.  Proceedings of the Select Committee of the United States Senate to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States (1880).  U.S. Congressional Serial Set.

Snaps, no. 7: Marie Lofton Jones.

Marie Jones in front of 1109 Queen Street, Wilson. Probably early 1940s.

In the 1910 census of Brogden township, Wayne County: farmer Robert Lofton, 66; wife Eveline, 66; daughters Emma J. Lofton, 37, Alice A. Wilson, 35, and Mary, 24, Bettie, 19, Florence, 19, and Jessie Lofton, 14, plus granddaughters Donnie, 4, Mable, 3, and Marie, 2 months.

In the 1920 census of Black Creek township, Wilson County: farmer Major J. Loftin, 42; mother Evaline, 71; brother-in-law Sam Barron, 24; sister Jessie Lofton, 24; and nieces Donnie, 13, Maybelle, 12, and Marie Loftin, 10.

On 11 October 1926, John William Jones, 23, of Black Creek, married Marie Lofton, 18, of Black Creek. A. Bynum performed the ceremony in the presence of Sylvester Woodard, R.H. Lofton and J.A. Jones.

In the 1930 census of Black Creek, Wilson County: farmer John W. Jones, 26; wife Maria, 20, a farm laborer; and daughters Celie Mae, 3, and Ruby Lee, 2.

In the 1940 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 1107 Queen Street, tobacco factory carpenter Johnnie Jones, 36; wife Marie, 30, cook; and children Ruby Lee, 11, Cecilia, 13, Johnnie, 9, Charles, 7, Joan, 3, and Jacqueline, 1. Marie reported that she was born in Mount Olive, North Carolina.

In 1942, Johnie William Jones registered for the World War II draft in Wilson. Per his registration card, he resided at 1107 Queen Street; was born 18 September 1903 in Wilson; his contact person was Mrs. Marie Jones, 1107 Queen Street; and he was employed by Noy 4750 Housing Project, New River, Onslow County, North Carolina.

 

The Jones family moved to Washington, D.C., in 1944. This photo likely was taken there. Marie Lofton Jones died in 1954.

Photographs from the personal collection of Hattie Henderson Ricks, now in possession of Lisa Y. Henderson.

This is the cause of the exodus.

THOMAS BYNUM.

I lived in Wilson County, North Carolina. I have a wife and eight children. It cost me one hundred and twenty-three dollars to get here. I never heard any thing about politics until I got to Indianapolis; then I was asked by a Democrat if some Republican did not go South and make fine promises to me, and did they not bring me here to vote? I told him, no, that I brought myself; I came on my own money; and that I came because I could not get any pay for my work, nor could I educate my children there; and now that I have seen the difference between the North and South I would not go back to North Carolina for anything, and I never expect to go back in life nor after death, except the buzzards carry me back. Mr. Turnbull, of Toisenot, N.C., a white Democrat, told me that I was coming out here to perish, but so far from perishing I am faring better than I ever fared before in my life. I wish to say that cases like the following is what brought about the exodus: A colored man rented a farm, for which he was to pay three bales of cotton, weighing 450 pounds each; he raised on that farm eleven bales of cotton, weighing 450 pounds each, and 25 barrels of corn, which left to the tenant eight bales of cotton, and 25 barrels of corn, pease, &c. The tenant bought nothing but a very small amount of very coarse food and clothing, using all the economy during the crop season to make no large account, thinking thereby to have something coming to him at settling day; but when settling day came the landlord had so enlarged his account as to cover everything — the eight bales of cotton, the 25 barrels of corn, pease, and all, and then said that the tenant lacked a little of paying out, although cotton sold at ten cents per pound. This and numerous other things is the cause of the exodus.

——

Probably, in the 1870 census of Gardners township, Wilson County: farm laborer Thomas Bynum, 32; wife Bethana, 28; and children James, 11, Oliver, 8, Mary, 6, Lavinia, 4, and “no name,” 2; and Lucy Pitt, 53. “Ages of this family are in doubt.”

In the 1880 census of Toisnot township, Wilson County: merchant P.J. Turnbull, 29, and family.

In the 1900 census of Indianapolis, Howard County, Indiana: at 1622 Guffin Street, street laborer Albert Whitley, 36; Polly, 32; children Cicero, 13, Mamie, 12, Albert, 9, Leonard, 6, and Wilber, 3; and grandfather Thomas Bynum, 65. All the adults were born in North Carolina.

Senate Report 693, Part 2, 2nd Session, 46th Congress.  Proceedings of the Select Committee of the United States Senate to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States (1880).  U.S. Congressional Serial Set.

In loving memory of Ernest F. McCoy.

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FP Ernest F McCoy Philadelphia PA_Page_2

In the 1910 census of Ingrams township, Johnston County, North Carolina: laborer Russell McCoy, 22, and wife Ommetter, 18.

On 5 June 1917, W.R. McKoy registered for the World War I draft in Harnett County, North Carolina. Per his registration card, he lived at Route 1, Dunn; was born 12 August 1888 in Harnett County; and farmed on land owned by Lovitt Warren. He signed his card with an X.

In the 1920 census of Mingo township, Sampson County, North Carolina: on Godwin Road, Russell McCoy, 30, farmer; wife Ometa, 25; and children Alice G., 4, and Ernest F., 2.

In the 1930 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 1012 Stantonsburg Street, farm laborer Russell McCoy, 40; wife Ometa, 34; and children Alice, 15, Earnest, 13, Catherine, 8, Cle O., 6, and Mary E., 3.

In the 1940 census of Wilson, Wilson County: Russel McCoy, 2, laborer; wife Ometa, 44, tobacco factory laborer; and children Alice, 24, Earnest, 22, Catherine, 18, Creed, 15, and Mary, 13.

In 1940, Ernest Franklin McCoy registered for the World War II draft in Wilson. Per his registration card, he was born 30 June 1917 in Sampson County; he resided at 212 Finch Street, Wilson; he worked for Imperial Tobacco Company, Barnes and Lodge Streets; and his nearest relative was his mother Effie Ometa McCoy.

Effie Ometa McCoy died 25 October 1942 at Mercy Hospital in Wilson. Per her death certificate, she was 47 years old; was born in Dunn, North Carolina, to Creed Smith and Mary Williams; and was married to William R. McCoy. Informant was Alice McCoy, 212 Finch Street.

William Russell McCoy died 5 August 1945 in Wilson. Per his death certificate, he was 56 years old; was born in Lillington, North Carolina, to Henry McCoy and Jennie McClain; resided at 212 Finch Street; and worked as a laborer. Alice McCoy was informant.

Funeral program from collection of Hattie Henderson Ricks (whose son Lucian Henderson married Ernest McCoy’s sister Mary Etta McCoy.)

Almus A. Lovette.

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Wilson Daily Times, 5 November 1938.

In the 1880 census of Savannah, Chatham County, Georgia: at 518 West Broad, laborer Green Lovett, 28; wife Julia, 30; and children Almus, 5, Mary, 3, and Floyd, 1.

In the 1900 census of Chesapeake District, Elizabeth County, Virginia: at Hampton Normal & Agricultural Institute, Almus A. Lovett, 25, student, born in Georgia.

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Third-Year Trade School Students, Catalogue of Hampton Normal & Agricultural Institute, Hampton, Virginia 1902-1903.

Lovette appears in Savannah city directories between 1904 and 1913 at various addresses and working as blacksmith, post office carrier, and driver. [Which begs the question of which years he taught in Greensboro.]

On 6 July 1908, Almus A. Lovett and Letitia H. Jones, both 33, were married in Savannah, Georgia.

Almus Ashton Lovette registered for the World War I draft in Wilson on 12 September 1918. Per his registration card, he resided at 415 Stantonsburg Street; was born 8 April 1876; worked as a horseshoer for G.T. Purvis, 212 Tarboro Street; and his nearest relative was Letitia H. Lovette.

In the 1920 census of Wilson, Wilson County: Almus Lovett, 42, blacksmith in shop, and wife Letitia, 43, seamstress.

In the 1930 Wilson city directory: Lovett Almus A (c) (Letitia H) horseshoer Stallings & Riley h 301 N. Vick.

Almus Ashton Lovett died 5 November 1938 in Wilson. Per his death certificate, he was born 7 April 1877 in Sylvania, Georgia to Green Lovett; resided at 301 North Vick Street; was married to Letitia Lovett; and worked as a blacksmith at a repair ship. Letitia Lovett was informant.

On 2 February 1941, Letitia H. Lovett, 57, daughter of Frank and Sarah Jones, married Edwin D. Fisher, 47, son of Edwin W. and Nannie D. Fisher, at Lovett’s home. Baptist minister Fred M. Davis performed the service in the presence of Milton W. Fisher, Mrs. Almina Fisher, Mrs. Rosa E. McCullers, and Mrs. Eva L. Brown.

Letitia Lovette Fisher died 1 November 1969 in Wilson. Per her death certificate, she was born 10 January 1876 in Georgia to Franklin Jones and an unknown mother; had worked as a teacher and seamstress; resided at 301 North Vick; and was married to Edwin D. Fisher, who served as informant.

 

Killed by live wire.

In news of Wilson, the News & Observer reported that undertaker Camillus Darden had traveled to New York to handle the affairs of Daniel Smith, who had been killed in a electrical accident. The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company operated both passenger and freight services on its rail rapid transit, elevated and subway network in Brooklyn and Queens, New York. Presumably, Smith, like many Southerners in that time, was working temporarily up North.

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News & Observer (Raleigh, N.C.), 25 October 1919.

In the 1900 census of Lumber Bridge, Robeson County, North Carolina: Eliza Smith, 39, farm laborer; son Ed, 16, sawmill hand; daughters Martha, 7, and Anna, 4; son Daniel, 24, farmer; daughter-in-law Adline, 18; nephew Robert, 17, farmhand; niece Nora, 14; nephews Lennie, 10, and William, 7; boarder Ed McGuire, 33, sawmill laborer.

In the 1908 Wilson city directory: Smith Daniel, driver h 625 E Vance.

In the 1910 census of Wilson, Wilson County: Daniel Smith, 33, furniture store drayman; wife Adeline, 29, laundress; sisters Marthy, 16, and Annie, 14, private nurses; and sister-in-law Lou Bryant, 11.

Daniel Smith registered for the World War I draft in Wilson County on 12 September 1918. Per his registration card, he was born 4 July 1877; resided near Wainwright Avenue; worked as laborer for Quinn McGowan; and his nearest relative was Adeline Smith.