Vocation

The brickmasons’ strike(s).

Newspaper reports reveal a strike (or series of strikes) by African-American brick masons in Wilson in the first decade of the 20th century. Though the record is sparse, these articles offer rare glimpses of black workers flexing their economic muscle, and surprising hints of the reach of organized labor during a time and place well-known for hostility toward unionization.

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Wilmington Messenger, 21 October 1902.

Brickmasons led by Goodsey Holden struck for a nine-hour work day consistent with that required by “the International union.” The protest, at least temporarily, resulted in concessions from the contractors for whom they worked.

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News & Observer (Raleigh, N.C.), 2 April 1903.

Six months later, bricklayers struck again, crippling progress on the construction of several large brick commercial buildings, including Imperial Tobacco’s new stemmery. Contractors brought in nearly 20 masons from Raleigh and Durham to pick up the work. The sub-headline suggests that the men refused to cross picket lines once they arrived in Wilson, but the article does not address the matter. Masons in those cities were also engaged in strike activity.

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Greensboro Daily News, 18 March 1906.

Three years later, Will Kittrell was arrested and charged with conspiracy and blackmail for allegedly warning a Henderson brickmason to leave town. Contractors continued to import masons from across North Carolina to fill the gap created by Wilson workers’ refusal to work without limits on long workdays.

——

The legacy of O. Nestus Freeman.

Beating me to the punch, Preservation of Wilson has compiled an inventory of the known surviving work of stonemason Oliver Nestus Freeman. Here you’ll find a photograph and brief description of each building or object, including the Round House and several residences across Wilson. Some have been highlighted in Black Wide-Awake here: 204 North Vick Street, 1115 East Nash Street, 1117 East Nash Street, 1209 East Nash Street, and 1300 East Nash Street.

Freeman constructed the stone exterior of Our Redeemer Lutheran Church, 612 Vance Street NE, circa 1941.

Preservation of Wilson is an organization dedicated to the revitalization of Wilson’s architectural heritage.

Photo by Lisa Y. Henderson, February 2019.

923 Washington Street.

The one hundredth in a series of posts highlighting buildings in East Wilson Historic District, a national historic district located in Wilson, North Carolina. As originally approved, the district encompasses 858 contributing buildings and two contributing structures in a historically African-American section of Wilson. (A significant number have since been lost.) The district was developed between about 1890 to 1940 and includes notable examples of Queen Anne, Bungalow/American Craftsman, and Shotgun-style architecture. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988.

As described in the nomination form for the East Wilson Historic District, this building is: “ca. 1930; 1 story; Alonzo Coley house; bungalow with unusual hip and side-gable roof configuration and shed dormer; aluminum-sided; Coley was a carpenter.”

Coley also built the houses at 914 and 918 Washington Street. Per the “Statement of Significance” section of the East Wilson nomination form: “A colleague of [O. Nestus] Freeman‘s, Alonzo Coley constructed bungalows for black clients, as well as worked in a barber shop. He advertised himself as a “licensed architect” after completing a drafting course at the local black high school.”

In 1917, Alonzo Coley registered for the World War I draft in Wilson. Per his draft registration card, he was born 8 September 1890 in Pikeville, Wayne County; resided at 105 East Street; worked as a carpenter for Barney Reid “in the Town of Wilson;” and was single.

Alonzo Coley, 26, of Wilson, son of Christopher and Sarah E. Coley of Wayne County, married Pauline McQueen, 23, of Wilson, daughter of Anthony and Jenny McQueen of Roland, North Carolina, on 14 March 1918. Presbyterian minister H.B. Taylor performed the ceremony in the presence of Maud Battle, Laura Coley and Lula Lewis.

In the 1920 census of Wilson, Wilson County: on Washington Street, house carpenter Lonzo Coley, 29; wife Paulean, 26; daughter Elma, 6 months; sister Edith, 16; and boarder Bula Thompson, 17.

In the 1930 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 923 Washington Street, owned and valued at $2000, building carpenter Lonie Coley, 35; wife Pauline, 34; and children Elmer, 10, Mary E., 8, Richard L., 7, Robert J., 4, and Pauline, 2.

In the 1940 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 923 Washington Street, owned and valued at $800, carpenter Alonzo Coley, 50; wife Pauline, 46, cleaner at post office; mother Sarah, 71; and children Elma, 20, beauty parlor operator, Maratta, 18, Robert J., 14, and Pauline, 12.

Alonzo Coley died 2 November 1967 in Wilson. Per his death certificate, he was born 8 September 1890 to Christopher and Sarah Coley; lived at 923 Washington Street; and was a laborer. Informant was Pauline Coley.

Photo by Lisa Y. Henderson, February 2019.

Where we worked, 1922 — L.

City directories offer fine-grained looks at a city’s residents at short intervals. The 1922 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., directory reveals the types of work available to African-Americans during the booming tobacco era. This post is the tenth in an alphabetical series listing all “colored” directory entries for whom an occupation was listed. The address is the resident’s home, unless a business address is noted.

  • Lafter, John, painter, 514 East Spruce
  • Lamb, William, laborer, 519 South Lodge
  • Lane, Frederick, laborer, 407 North Lane
  • Lane, Lula, domestic, 501 South Railroad
  • Lane, Rosa, domestic, 407 North Pine
  • Langley, Jerry J., grocer, 901 Viola
  • Lassiter, Dempsey, fireman, 106 South East
  • Lassiter, Henry, carpenter, 518 East Nash
  • Lassiter, Matilda, laundress, 415 South Railroad
  • Lassiter, Sylvester, farmer, 415 South Railroad
  • Leach, Bessie, domestic, 403 Spring Street alley
  • Leach, Louisa, cook, 403 Spring Street alley
  • Leavister, Bradford, helper, 404 East Bank[s]
  • Leavister, Rayford, helper, 404 East Bank[s]
  • Lee, Ada, tobacco worker, 514 Smith
  • Lee, Fletcher, horseshoer — J.Y. Buchanan, 114 Manchester
  • Lee, James, laborer, 402 South Daniel
  • Lee, James, laborer, 531 Smith
  • Lee, Mamie, domestic, 401 Viola
  • Lee, Mary, domestic, 413 South Railroad
  • Lee, Octavia, domestic, 114 Manchester
  • Leggett, John, waiter, 121 Ashe
  • Legion, Dicey, tobacco worker, 605 East Nash
  • Lenzy, George, barber, 504 East Goldsboro
  • Leonard, Annie, trained nurse, 117 Darden Alley
  • Leonard, Samuel, laborer, 117 Darden Alley
  • Lewis, Jane, laundress, 102 Pender
  • Lewis, John, carpenter, 411 North Vick
  • Lewis, John H., carpenter, 411 North Vick
  • Lewis, Turner, laborer, 211 South Railroad
  • Lewis, William, tobacco worker, 118 Ashe
  • Lilly, Charles, laborer, 505 East Hines
  • Lilly, Edna, domestic, 505 East Hines
  • Lindsay, George, barber, 504 South Goldsboro
  • Lindsay, Myrtle, laundress, 504 South Goldsboro
  • Little, James, laborer, 618 East Vance
  • Little, Lula, tobacco worker, 414 South Spring
  • Lloyd, Henrietta, laundress, 102 Ashe
  • Lovitt, Almus A., horseshoer — G.T. Pervis, 301 North Vick
  • Lovitt, Letitia, dressmaker, 301 North Vick
  • Lucas, Gertie, cook, 406 South Bruton
  • Lucas, Henry, drayman, 307 East Jones
  • Lucas, James, shoe polisher, 307 East Jones
  • Lucas, John, porter, 114 South East
  • Lucas, LeRoy, driver, 307 East Jones
  • Lucas, Lucille, hair dresser — Carrie Strickland, East Jones
  • Lucas, Luther, laborer, 1108 Wainwright Avenue
  • Lucas, Polly, tobacco worker, 107 Manchester
  • Lucas, Sarah, private secretary — Amos Batts, Elm City
  • Lucas, Stanley, tobacco worker, 114 South East
  • Lucas, Susan, cook, 316 Pender
  • Lumsden, Creecy, domestic, 614 Wiggins
  • Lyons, Lonnie, tobacco worker, 603 South Spring

 

 

 

Taxi war.

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Wilson Daily Times, 28 November 1938.

Eighty years ago today, Richard Sheridan and Ed Nicholson were fined for trespassing after protesting the exclusion of taxi drivers from Wilson’s bus station.

In a nutshell:

Miley Glover and Dr. Mallory A. Pittman leased a building to various bus companies for use as a bus station. Glover and Pittman also leased “taxi rights” to the building to J.D. Peacock of Goldsboro, who barred any other taxi drivers from seeking fares on the premises. When Sheridan and Nicholson attempted to pick up fares at the station, they were arrested and charged with trespassing. Their lawyer argued that the station owners had created a taxi monopoly in contravention of state law, but the recorder (magistrate) did not agree. Each man was assessed a five-dollar fine.

The 1941 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., city directory reveals two taxicab companies in Wilson. J. Clifford Peacock and George B. Patrick owned Oak Cab Company, based at the bus station. Hugh T. Foster owned Taxi-Cab Service at 508 East Nash. Oak Cab’s arrangement with Glover and Peacock meant that, effectively, black drivers had no access to white patrons arriving in Wilson by bus. It also meant that black riders had to leave the station’s premises to hail a cab.

Per the nomination form for Wilson Central Business-Tobacco Warehouse District, the taxi stand and bus station at 307 East Green Street were built for Miley Glover in 1937 and 1938. The bus station was one of Wilson’s few Art Deco buildings. It operated into the 1990s and was demolished after the city built a public transportation hub on Nash Street.

——

  • Richard Sheridan — Richard Sheridan, 26, son of Richard and Fannie Sheridan, married Beatrice Bullock, 19, daughter of Alice Bullock, on 1 September 1935 in Wilson. Sheridan registered for the World War II draft in Wilson in 1940. Per his registration card, he was born 20 September 1910 in Maxton, N.C.; resided at 1115 Atlantic Street, Wilson; his contact was mother, Fannie Sheridan, 1115 Atlantic; and he worked for traveling salesman John Whelan.

Photo of bus station and taxi stand courtesy of Dean Jeffrey at Flickr, 2001.

Where we worked, 1922 — J and K.

City directories offer fine-grained looks at a city’s residents at short intervals. The 1922 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., directory reveals the types of work available to African-Americans during the booming tobacco era. This post is the ninth in an alphabetical series listing all “colored” directory entries for whom an occupation was listed. The address is the resident’s home, unless a business address is noted.

  • Jackson, Annie S., domestic, 618 East Green
  • Jackson, Benjamin H., barber — W.M. Hines, 721 East Green
  • Jackson, Elise, teacher, 618 East Green
  • Jackson, Joseph S., laborer, 618 East Green
  • Jacobs, Elizabeth, domestic, 302 North East
  • Jacobs, Jesse, janitor, 303 Elba
  • Jacobs, Lillie B., cook, 705 South Lodge
  • Jacobs, Sarah, domestic, 303 Elba
  • James, Mary, tobacco worker, 307 Stantonsburg Road
  • James, Robert, tobacco worker, 307 Stantonsburg Road
  • James, William, laborer, 201 Stantonsburg Road
  • Jarvin, Clinton, laborer, 407 North Pine
  • Jefferson, Charles, tobacco worker, 213 Stantonsburg Road
  • Jefferson, John, carpenter, 521 South Spring
  • Jefferson, Maggie, tobacco worker, 627 Wiggins
  • Jefferson, Robert, laborer, 706 Walnut
  • Jeffrey, Ethel, domestic, 912 Washington
  • Jeffreys, Addie, cook, 310 Spring Street Alley
  • Jeffries, Janie, laundress, 607 Spruce
  • Jeffries, Kate, laundress, 600 South Daniel
  • Jeffries, Mary, domestic, 507 Stantonsburg Road
  • Jeffries, Nathan, drayman, 607 Spruce
  • Jenkins, Frank, blacksmith, 404 East Hines
  • Jenkins, Frank, tobacco worker, 317 South Goldsboro
  • Jenkins, Tessie, tobacco worker, 306 Stantonsburg Road
  • Jennings, Mary M., teacher, 307 Pender
  • Johnson, Amos, laborer 609 East Nash
  • Johnson, Beatrice, cook, 529 South Lodge
  • Johnson, Bertha, tobacco worker, 510 South Goldsboro
  • Johnson, Edward, grocer 708 South Goldsboro, 406 East Hines
  • Johnson, Ella, laundress, 316 South Lodge
  • Johnson, Frank, laborer, 515 Railroad
  • Johnson, Jake, proprietor — Busy Bee Shoe Shine Parlor, 513 East Nash
  • Johnson, Lee, shoemaker 517 East Nash, 206 North East
  • Johnson, Lula, domestic, 506 Smith
  • Johnson, Marjorie, tobacco worker, 207 South Railroad
  • Johnson, Richmond, gardener, 911 East Vance
  • Johnson, William, laborer, 506 Smith
  • Johnson, William A., cook, 910 Mercer
  • Johnson, Winnie, laundress, 529 South Lodge
  • Jones, Charles, barber 914 East Nash, 912 East Nash
  • Jones, Christine, tobacco worker, 1009 Mercer
  • Jones, Edward, bricklayer, 202 Pender
  • Jones, Edward, laborer, 107 West Walnut
  • Jones, Elmira, tobacco worker, 1009 Mercer
  • Jones, Estella, laundress, 513 Railroad
  • Jones, Frank, laborer, 509 South Bruton
  • Jones, Geneva, laundress, 506 Grace
  • Jones, Harriet, domestic, 1000 Robinson [Roberson]
  • Jones, Isaiah, butcher, 500 East Vance
  • Jones, Levi H., proprietor — The Mayflower, 114 Pender
  • Jones, Mack, drayman, 502 South Lodge
  • Jones, Martha, domestic, 901 Stantonsburg Road
  • Jones, Maud, cook, 207 South Bruton
  • Jones, Melvin, tobacco worker, 708 East Vance
  • Jones, Nannie, domestic, 621 East Vance
  • Jones, Noel, farmer, 1009 Mercer
  • Jones, Noel, tobacco stemmer, 409 Bank [Banks]
  • Jones, Pearl, cook, 311 East Jones
  • Jones, Roberta, cook, 404 South Bruton
  • Jones, Sadie, domestic, 202 Pender
  • Jones, Samuel, barber The Mayflower, 500 East Vance
  • Jones, Vicey, laborer, 505 Stantonsburg Road
  • Jones, Walter, driver, 507 Grace
  • Jones, Wesley, laborer, 901 Stantonsburg Road
  • Jones, William H., teacher, 307 Hackney
  • Jordan, Delia, domestic, 614 Wiggins
  • Jordan, Mollie, tobacco worker, 628 Wiggins
  • Joyner, Farrar, fireman, 418 Walnut Alley
  • Joyner, George H., shoe repairer, 529 East Nash
  • Joyner, Lou, tobacco worker, 406 South Goldsboro
  • Joyner, Mazie, tobacco worker, 496 South Goldsboro
  • Joyner, Thomas, porter, Atlantic extended
  • Kenner, George, drayman, 528 East Barnes
  • Kenner, James, driver, 528 East Barnes
  • Key, Clarence, porter, 621 Suggs
  • Killebrew, Needham, driver, 311 Hackney
  • Kindell, Charles, janitor, 121 Pender
  • Kindell, Jessie, domestic, 121 Pender
  • King, Alberta, domestic, 203 North East
  • King, Andrew, tobacco worker, 205 South Spruce
  • King, Chaney, laundress, 205 South Spruce
  • King, Ernest, driver, 316 Pender
  • King, Henrietta, cook, 651 Wiggins
  • King, Ludie, laborer, 203 North East
  • King, Martha, tobacco worker, 649 Wiggins
  • King, Mary, domestic, 203 East Spruce
  • King, Mary H., laundress, 205 East Spruce
  • King, William, farmer, 203 East Spruce
  • King, William, laborer, 111 West Gold
  • Kittrell, Letta, domestic, 807 Viola
  • Kittrell, Mary, domestic, 708 East Green
  • Kittrell, William H., brick layer, 708 East Green
  • Knight, Ada, clerk — Nelson Green, 607 South Lodge
  • Knight, Elsie, domestic, 112 Pender
  • Knight, Frank, chauffeur, 112 Pender
  • Knight, Frederick, laborer, 402 South Daniel
  • Knight, James H., blacksmith Thomas & Barnes, 607 South Lodge
  • Knight, John, teacher, 704 Suggs
  • Knight, Nancy, laundress, 607 South Lodge
  • Knight, Rosa, tobacco worker, 209 North East
  • Knights of King Solomon Inc., 205 South Stantonsburg Road, W.M. Pierce G.H.P., Amos Potts G.S.
  • Kornegy, Bryant, pastor — Christ Disciples Church, Kinston N.C.
  • Korney, Elbert, tobacco worker, 203 South Stantonburg Road

Notes:

  • The Grand Scribe of the Knights of King Solomon was Amos Batts, not Potts.

Where we worked, 1922 — H and I.

City directories offer fine-grained looks at a city’s residents at short intervals. The 1922 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., directory reveals the types of work available to African-Americans during the booming tobacco era. This post is the eighth in an alphabetical series listing all “colored” directory entries for whom an occupation was listed. The address is the resident’s home, unless a business address is noted.

  • Hadley, Hattie, laundress, 607 East Nash
  • Hagan, Cora, tobacco worker, 1205 Carolina
  • Hagan, Dicey, domestic, 212 South East
  • Hagan, Henry, laborer, 404 Spring Street Alley
  • Hagan, Isaac, laborer, 409 Young’s Alley
  • Hagan, John, farmer, 212 South East
  • Hagan, Jonah, cook, 1205 Carolina
  • Hagan, May, laundress, 409 Young’s Alley
  • Hall, Bettie, tobacco worker, 901 Atlanta
  • Hall, Chester, tobacco worker, 404 Spring Street Alley
  • Hall, Jerre H., carpenter, 901 Atlanta [Atlantic]
  • Hall, Luther, dairyman, 408 Whitley
  • Hall, Purley, orderly — Wilson Sanatorium [see below]
  • Hall, Rosa, laundress, 212 East Hines
  • Hall, Victoria, maid, 125 Ashe
  • Hanesworth, Charles, tobacco worker, 203 Stantonsburg Road
  • Haney, Essie, tobacco worker, 313 Stantonsburg Road
  • Haney, Minnie, tobacco worker, 313 Stantonsburg Road
  • Haney, Rufus, tobacco worker, 313 Stantonsburg Road
  • Haney, Sing, tobacco worker, 313 Stantonsburg Road
  • Hardy, Carrie, laundress, 209 South Reid
  • Hardy, Cornelius, tobacco worker, 209 South Reid
  • Hargrave, Frank S., physician, 624 East Green
  • Hargrave, Willie, domestic, 605 East Green
  • Hargraves, Donald, barber, 1110 Carolina
  • Hargraves, Duncan, carpenter, 1110 Carolina
  • Hargrove, Elias S., Rev., 803 Viola
  • Harper, Charles, carpenter, 1106 East Nash
  • Harper, Luicinda, domestic, 1106 East Nash
  • Harrell, Charles T., bricklayer, 503 Railroad
  • Harrell, Grady, bellman, 411 East Green
  • Harrell, Thomas, laborer, 802 South Lodge
  • Harrington, Edward, section hand, 412 East Jones
  • Harrington, Sarah, laundress, 514 East Nash
  • Harris, Alus, grocer, 1009 Carolina, 1007 Carolina
  • Harris, Bessie, laundress, 411 Young’s Alley
  • Harris, David, laborer, 411 Young’s Alley
  • Harris, Emma, tobacco worker, 208 East Hines
  • Harris, George, laborer, 613 Stantonsburg Road
  • Harris, Henry, bricklayer, 208 East Hines
  • Harris, James, laborer, 208 East Hines
  • Harris, James, tobacco worker, 407 East Walnut
  • Harris, John, tobacco worker, 208 Manchester
  • Harris, Pearl, cook, 703 East Nash
  • Harrison, Lillie, cook, 531 Smith
  • Harrison, Zeke, laborer, 117 Manchester
  • Harvey, Love, barber, 114 East Barnes, 410 East Walnut
  • Harvey, Roscoe L., barber – Love Harvey, 410 East Walnut
  • Haskins, Annie, laundress, 404 South Daniel
  • Haskins, Gertrude, laundress, 508 Warren
  • Haskins, James, porter, 530 East Barnes
  • Haskins, Lester, tobacco worker, 404 South Daniel
  • Haskins, Martha, cook, 505 West Nash
  • Haskins, Robert, bottler, 508 Warren
  • Haskins, Sarah, laundress, 507 Hadley
  • Hatcher, Thomas, bricklayer, 1002 Mercer
  • Hawkins, George, laborer, 902 Viola
  • Hawkins, Otha, bricklayer, 307 Elba
  • Hawkins, Robert, factory hand, 215 East Spruce
  • Hayes, Edward J., principal – Stantonsburg Street Public School 613 East Green
  • Hayes, Ella, laundress, 505 Railroad
  • Hedgepeth, Fannie, laundress, 310 East Walnut
  • Hedgepeth, Jennie, cook, 104 Ashe
  • Hennett, Henry, tobacco worker, 402 Spring Street Alley
  • Henry, Daniel, laborer, 407 East Green
  • Henry, Robert, bricklayer, 141 East Bank[s]
  • Herring, Amos, laborer, 705 South Lodge
  • Herring, Arthur, farmer, 616 Railroad
  • Herring, Ella, laundress, 616 Railroad
  • Herring, Jane, tobacco worker, 616 Railroad
  • Herring, Jesse, laborer, 416 Whitley
  • Herring, Mattie, domestic, 616 Railroad
  • Hicks, Dolly, attendant – Dr. M.E. DuBrisette [DuBissette], East Green extended
  • Higgins, Martha, laundress, 910 East Nash
  • Highsmith, Neal, barber – The Mayflower, 717 Viola
  • Highsmith, William J., barber – W.M. Hines, 802 East Vance
  • Hill, Anna, cook, 306 Pender
  • Hill, Edward, plasterer, 308 North Reid
  • Hill, Henrietta, maid, 205 Pender
  • Hill, James A., laborer, 610 Railroad
  • Hill, John, tobacco worker, 610 Railroad
  • Hill, Joseph, carpenter, 117 Ashe
  • Hill, Lillie, tobacco worker, 610 Railroad
  • Hill, Lula, domestic, 631 Wiggins
  • Hill, Maude, laundress, 117 Ashe
  • Hines, Allie, laundress, 631 Suggs
  • Hines, Amos, fish [market?], 609 Stantonsburg Road
  • Hines, Amos, fish, 631 Suggs
  • Hines, Charles, grocer E Nash extended, 643 Wiggins
  • Hines, George, porter, 631 Suggs
  • Hines, Harvey, laborer, 631 Suggs
  • Hines, Henry, laborer, 404 South Goldsboro
  • Hines, John, laborer, 502 South Daniel
  • Hines, Mary, tobacco worker, 504 Grace
  • Hines, Robert, helper, 546 East Nash
  • Hines, Sarah, laundress, 631 Suggs
  • Hines, Sylvester, machinist, 409 Viola
  • Hines, Walter S., barber 215 East Nash, 617 East Green
  • Hines, William M., barber 113 South Tarboro, 615 East Green
  • Hinnant, Annie, domestic, 903 Stantonsburg Road
  • Hinnant, Arthur, laborer, 903 Stantonsburg Road
  • Hinnant, Cora, domestic, 903 Stantonsburg Road
  • Hinnant, Edward, soft drinks 825 Stantonsburg Road, 903 Stantonsburg Road
  • Hinnant, Edwin L., cashier city clerk, 301 Whitehead Avenue
  • Hinnant, Frank, porter — Dildy & Agnew, Pender corner Viola
  • Hinton, Hardy, cooper, 817 Mercer
  • Hinton, Maggie, maid, 107 South Carroll
  • Hinton, Massie, cook, 107 South Carroll
  • Hinton, Matthew, plasterer, 603 South Lodge
  • Hinton, Moses, laborer 516 Smith
  • Hinton, Ola, laundress, 516 Smith
  • Hocutt, Ella, domestic, 616 Darden Alley
  • Hodge, Frank, driver, 520 Carroll
  • Hodge, Harriet, laundress, 520 Carroll
  • Hodge, Isaac, tobacco worker, 407 East Green
  • Hodge, Rena, domestic, 109 North East
  • Horn, Arthur, laborer, 406 Spring Street Alley
  • Horne, Missouri, laundress — Wilson Sanatorium, 214 Manchester
  • Hoskin, Joseph, tobacco worker, 524 East Barnes
  • Hotel Lynnhaven, 537 East Nash, Gertrude Adams proprietor
  • Howard, Ada, domestic, 402 Whitley
  • Howard, Charles, tobacco worker, Bank near Goldsboro
  • Howard, John, fireman, 701 South Spring
  • Howard, Lula, domestic, 906 Atlanta
  • Howard, Walter, laborer, 902 East Nash
  • Howell, Annie, domestic, 304 North East
  • Howell, Howard, laborer, 304 North East
  • Howell, William, laborer, 525 Stemmery
  • Huggins, Mary, tobacco worker, 611 Gay
  • Humphrey, Edward D., cooper, 707 South Goldsboro
  • Hunt, Linn, helper, 510 Railroad
  • Hunter, Annie, tobacco worker, 402 South Bruton
  • Hunter, Edward, bottler, 1201 Washington Avenue
  • Hunter, Lossie, maid, 1201 Washington Avenue
  • Hurst, William M., cook – A.M. Lewis, 908 Atlantic
  • Hussey, Florence, laundress, 707 East Nash
  • Hutchins, Levi, tobacco worker, 513 Warren
  • Hutchins, Tillie, domestic, 513 Warren
  • Hyman, Bessie, domestic, 600 South Daniel
  • Hyman, James, tobacco worker, 905 Robinson
  • Hyman, Lea, domestic, 414 Whitley
  • Hyman, Louvenia, domestic, 600 South Daniel
  • Hyman, Samuel, butler, 600 South Daniel
  • Ideal Pharmacy, 557 East Nash, D.C. Yancey proprietor
  • Ingram, Edward, laborer 505 South Mercer
  • Ingram, Jessie, cook, 111 North Rountree
  • Isam, Roy, laborer, 604 South Daniel

Notes:

  • Asterisk notwithstanding, Edwin Hinnant was certainly not “colored,” and was likely deeply unhappy to find himself so designated in the city directory.
  • The Hotel Lynnhaven was located where Artis’ Barbershop later stood for several decades.

At right, the old Wilson Sanatorium Annex in October 2018. Its marquee is just visible above the roof of the adjacent building.

 

Where we worked: 1922 — G.

City directories offer fine-grained looks at a city’s residents at short intervals. The 1922 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., directory reveals the types of work available to African-Americans during the booming tobacco era. This post is the seventh in an alphabetical series listing all “colored” directory entries for whom an occupation was listed. The address is the resident’s home, unless a business address is noted.

  • Gaines, Charles, elevator operator, 203 Stantonsburg Road
  • Gaines, Dora, domestic, 528 Smith
  • Gardner, Alice, maid — Wilson Sanatorium, Sunshine Alley
  • Gardner, George, farmer, Spring Street Alley
  • Gardner, Preston, clerk — Peter Artis, Wiggins Street
  • Gardner, William, tobacco worker, 602 South Lodge
  • Garrity, Mary, teacher, 400 Stantonsburg Road
  • Gaston, Lorenzo, tobacco worker, 118 Manchester
  • Gaston, Mancie, barber — W.S. Hines, Elm City
  • Gaston, Sattena, dressmaker, 118 Manchester
  • Gay, Albert, porter, 623 East Green
  • Gay, Charles, tobacco worker, 625 East Green
  • Gay, Rachel, tobacco worker, 812 Robinson [Roberson]
  • Gay, William, tobacco worker, 713 Stantonsburg Road
  • Gear, Cora, maid, 505 East Nash
  • George, Arthur H., teacher, 401 North Vick
  • Gerald, Edgar, tobacco worker, 108 South Vick
  • Gibbs, James, tobacco worker, 604 Park Avenue
  • Gibbs, Priscilla, domestic, 604 Park Avenue
  • Gilchrist, Harrison, tobacco worker, 904 Mercer
  • Gilliam Cafe, 509 E Nash, Rachel Gilliam proprietor
  • Gilliam, Mary, domestic, 646 Wiggins
  • Gilliam, Matthew S., physician — 516 East Nash, 805 East Nash
  • Gilliam, Rachel, proprietor — Gilliam Cafe, 228 Smith
  • Gillis, Walter, helper, 411 South Goldsboro
  • Glenn, Price, laborer, 800 South Lodge
  • Globe Theatre (moving pictures), 543 East Nash
  • Godwin, Robert, laborer, 903 Robinson
  • Goffney, Clinton F., tobacco worker, 704 Suggs
  • Goffney, Joseph, tobacco worker, 206 Manchester
  • Goolsby, Kirby, helper, 536 East Nash
  • Gordon, Elmer, barber — W.S. Hines, 721 East Green
  • Gordon, Oscar C., hairdresser, 511 East Nash
  • Gorham, Ernest, laborer, 405 East Bank[s]
  • Gorham, George, tobacco worker, 417 South Goldsboro
  • Gowen, Walter, tobacco worker, 203 Stantonsburg Road
  • Graham, Henry, tobacco worker, 414 East Walnut
  • Grant, Mary, trained nurse, 203 Pender
  • Grantham, Dessimore, barber, 309 Forbes
  • Grantham, Garfield, carpenter, 908 Viola
  • Gray, Albert, tobacco worker, 606 South Lodge
  • Gray, Mattie, laundress, 606 South Lodge
  • Gray, Sam, tobacco worker, 105 Manchester
  • Green, Arthur, laborer, 202 Pender
  • Green, Edwin, tobacco worker, 13 Stantonsburg Road
  • Green, James, tobacco worker, 546 East Green
  • Green, Marion, laborer, 314 Pender
  • Green, Mary, domestic, 518 East Nash
  • Green, Minnie, laundress, 135 Narroway
  • Green, Missouri, laundress, 507 Grace
  • Green, Naomi, domestic, 202 Pender
  • Green, Nelson, grocer, 420 South Spring, 502 South Lodge
  • Green, Oscar, tobacco worker, 606 South Lodge
  • Green, Richard, Laborer, 314 Pender
  • Green, Walter, tobacco worker, 314 Pender
  • Green, Wash, laborer, 518 East Nash
  • Greenfield, Clarence, driver, 203 Stantonsburg Road
  • Greenfield, Luvenia, cook, 522 South Lodge
  • Griffin, Boston, tobacco worker, 503 Viola
  • Griffin, Mary, tobacco worker, 705 South Lodge
  • Griffis, Delia, laundress, 310 North East
  • Griffis, Donald, blacksmith, 310 North East
  • Griffis, John H., farmer, 310 North East
  • Grimes, Carrie, tobacco worker, 306 East Walnut
  • Grissom, Hattie, domestic, 201 North Vick
  • Grissom, Lydia, hairdresser, 201 North Vick
  • Gunn, Daniel, tobacco grader, 512 South Lodge, 514 South Lodge

Notes:

  • Peter Artis was a confectioner with a shop at 502 East Green.
  • Dessimore Grantham’s Forbes Street? I have never heard of it, and it’s not listed in the directory’s Guide to Streets.

Where we worked: 1922 — F.

City directories offer fine-grained looks at a city’s residents at short intervals. The 1922 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., directory reveals the types of work available to African-Americans during the booming tobacco era. This post is the sixth in an alphabetical series listing all “colored” directory entries for whom an occupation was listed. The address is the resident’s home, unless a business address is noted.

  • Fagin, Mittie, laundress, 602 South Spring
  • Faison, Colonel, blacksmith, 406 East Bank[s]
  • Faison, Rufus, tobacco worker, 303 Mercer
  • Faison, Thomas, tobacco worker, 504 Bank
  • Faison, William, tobacco worker, 504 Bank
  • Faithful, Mamie, teacher, 303 Stantonsburg Avenue
  • Farmer, Alfred, laborer, 605 Spruce
  • Farmer, Annie, laundress, 309 Hackney
  • Farmer, Annie, laundress, 215 East Spruce
  • Farmer, Blanche, laundress, 404 Young’s Alley
  • Farmer, Charles W., butler, 611 Spruce
  • Farmer, Eli, laborer, 144 Narroway
  • Farmer, Ella, tobacco worker, 412 South Spring
  • Farmer, Essie, tobacco worker, 409 South Goldsboro
  • Farmer, Eula, domestic, 205 North Reid
  • Farmer, George, porter, 507 West Hines
  • Farmer, George, driver, 613 Spruce
  • Farmer, Jefferson, porter, 404 Young’s Alley
  • Farmer, Jesse, tobacco worker, 611 West Hines
  • Farmer, John W., driver, 706 East Green
  • Farmer, Julius, laborer, 810 West Nash
  • Farmer, Lawrence, porter, 503 Viola
  • Farmer, Lelia, laundress, 138 Narroway
  • Farmer, Maggie, cook, 611 Spruce
  • Farmer, Mamie, laundress, 613 Spruce
  • Farmer, Mary, laundress, 500 Grace
  • Farmer, Orlando, laborer, 804 East Nash
  • Farmer, Richard, laborer, 412 East Jones
  • Farmer, Viola, tobacco worker, 138 Narroway
  • Farmer, Waverly, janitor, 616 East Green
  • Farmer, William, porter, 205 North Reid
  • Farrior, Henry W., Rev., 203 Pender
  • Faucette, John, tobacco worker, 208 Manchester
  • Faulkland, J.R., barber — James H. Barnes, 718 Viola
  • Faulkland, Walter, barber — The Mayflower, 721 East Green
  • Fentress, John, laborer, 407 Spring Street Alley
  • Ferguson, Mary, domestic, 404 Whitley
  • Ferrell, Ernest, cook, 704 Suggs
  • Fields, Henrietta, domestic, 714 East Green
  • Finch, Rosa, domestic, 122 Pender
  • Finch, Solomon, tobacco worker, 122 Pender
  • First Baptist Church, Pender corner Nash
  • Fisher, Harrison, tobacco worker, 304 Spring Street Alley
  • Fitts, Courtney, teacher, 1005 Washington Avenue
  • Fitts, Howard M., teacher, 1005 Washington Avenue
  • Floyd, Amos, butler, 420 East Green
  • Floyd, Carolina, maid, 315 South Goldsboro
  • Floyd, June, section hand, 711 South Goldsboro
  • Floyd, Mattie, laundress, 420 East Green
  • Ford, Curtis, carpenter, 604 East Green
  • Ford, Freda, cook, 607 East Green
  • Ford, Sula, domestic, 400 East Hines
  • Ford, William, helper, 700 South Spring
  • Foster, Henrietta, trained nurse, 203 Pender
  • Foster, Hugh, carpenter, 411 East Green
  • Foster, Maggie, domestic, 411 East Green
  • Fox, Dervis, carpenter, 1203 Carolina
  • Fox, Lula, laundress, 1203 Carolina
  • Franklin, James, laborer, 523 South Lodge
  • Frankin, John, laborer, 506 Grace
  • Franklin, Mary, domestic, 413 South Railroad
  • Franklin, William, laborer, 413 South Railroad
  • Frazier, Mitchell, laborer, 317 South Goldsboro
  • Frazier, Evan, tobacco worker, 904 Mercer
  • Free Will Baptist Church, East Vance corner Elba
  • Free Will Baptist Church, Lane near Woodard Avenue
  • Freeman, Hattie, domestic, 1115 Atlanta [Atlantic]
  • Freeman, James A., porter, rear 110 West Nash
  • Freeman, Julius, bricklayer, 1115 Atlanta
  • Freeman, O. Nestus, bricklayer, East Nash extended
  • Freeman, Rosa, cook, rear 110 West Nash
  • Furney, William, tobacco worker, 306 East South

Notes: