The Lord told me to.

Wilson Daily Times, 22 November 1948.


In the 1900 census of Otter Creek township, Edgecombe County, N.C.: Joseph Wooten, 38; wife Chaney, 28; and children Cora, 11, James, 6, Lossie, 4, and Nora, 1.

In the 1900 census of Sparta township, Edgecombe County: Watt Vines, 30; wife Emma, 29; and children Eddie, 11, Patsey, 5, Junius, 3, and Yettie, 3 months. 

In the 1910 census of Otter Creek township, Edgecombe County: Joseph Wooten, 50; wife Chaney, 40; and children James, 17, Lossie, 15, Jacob, 11, Mark, 9, and Andrew J., 1.

On 27 January 1915, James Wooten, 21, of Edgecombe County, son of Joe and Chaney Wooten, married Yettie Vines, 18, of Saratoga, daughter of Watson and Emma Vines, in Saratoga. Joe Wooten applied for the license, and Primitive Baptist minister Ruffin Hyman performed the ceremony in the presence of C.C. Vines, J.J. Vines, and Miles E. Reid.

In the 1920 census of Otter Creek township, Edgecombe County: James Wooten, 25, and wife Yettie.

In the 1930 census of Saratoga township, Wilson County: James Wooten, 36; wife Yattie, 30; and William J., 7.

In the 1940 census of Saratoga township, Wilson County: farmer Jim Wooten 45; wife Hattie, 39; sister Mary Bullock, 50; and cousins Melba M., 9, and Ada R. Edwards, 6.

The 8 December 1948 Daily Times reported that Yettie Wooten, an “aging colored woman,” had been sentences to ten to fifteen years in state prison, with a recommendation that she placed in the division for the criminally insane. 

Yettie Vines Wooten died 9 October 1990 in Wilson. 

White man held for murder of Sam Jackson.

Wilson Daily Times, 2 September 1924.

On 18 August 1924, Joe Cockrell, white, interrupted four African-American men — Sam Jackson, Tom Smith, Otis Taylor, and John Smith — pulling fodder in a corn field on George Dew’s farm. After demanding liquor, Cockrell argued with Jackson. Shortly after, a shot rang out, Jackson dropped to the ground, and Cockrell fled. He was on the lam for about two weeks before being arrested at his uncle’s house, charged and held without bail.

On 6 November 1924, Raleigh’s News and Observer reported that a judge had determined there was not enough evidence to hold Cockrell on first degree murder charges and had reduced the charge to second degree and released Cockrell on $5000 bond. I have not found a report of the verdict in the case. 


On 9 December 1918, Sam Jackson, 19, of Wilson, son of Turner and Nellie Jackson of South Carolina, married Victoria Watson, 18, of Wilson, daughter of Will and Alice Watson of Clayton, North Carolina, at the courthouse in Wilson. 

On 4 January 1919, Sam Jackson, 20, of Wilson, son of Simon and Nellie Jackson of Conway, South Carolina, and Mary Carroll, 19, of Wilson, daughter of Major and Dollie Carroll, in Wilson. Free Will Baptist minister A.A.J. Davis performed the ceremony in the presence of William Cassill, Molley Wright, and Mary Davis. [A month after Jackson married Victoria Watson??]

In the 1920 census of Taylor township, Wilson County: farm laborer Sam Jackson, 22, and wife Mary, 23.

Sam Jackson died 18 August 1924 in Taylor’s township, Wilson County. Per his death certificate, he was 30 years old; was married; and was a farmer. He was buried in Coleman’s cemetery. George Dew was informant.

James Wiggins shot to death at tobacco barn.

Wilson Daily News, 18 November 1921.


James Wiggins, in fact, was fatally wounded. In fact, by time this article ran, he had been dead four days and buried two.

James Wiggins died 14 November 1921 in Wilson. Per his death certificate, he was 26 years old; was born in Edgecombe County, N.C., to George Wiggins and Mary Pitt; and was a common laborer. 

  • Isaac Ford

On 10 October 1912, Isaac Ford, 22, married Jane Peaton, 21, both of Black Creek, were married at Peaton’s father’s house in Nahunta township, Wayne County (though their marriage license was issued in Wilson County.) H.R. Minshew applied for the license, and Missionary Baptist minister N.S. Newton performed the ceremony in the presence of John R. James, Peter Applewhite, and Charlie Newton.

In 1917, Isaac Ford registered for the World War I draft in Wilson County. Per his registration card, he was born 6 August 1889 in Fremont [Wayne County], N.C.; lived in Fremont; was a self-employed farmer; and had a wife and child.

In the 1920 census of Black Creek township, Wilson County: farmer Isaac Ford, 32; wife Jane, 35, farm laborer; and son Calvin, 8. 

On 28 May 1927, Isaac Ford, 37, of Black Creek, married Nora Dickerson, 26, of Black Creek, in Wilson in the presence of Braxton Davis, Hugh Campbell, and Calvin Ford.

State vs. Doc Applewhite.

In the spring of 1912, conflict between William Henry Pender and Dock Applewhite over Pender’s wife Mollie Pender came to a violent head.

Henry Pender, witness for the state, being sworn, states that he and wife had some trouble about the intimacy existing between his wife and Doc. Applewhite. Henry and his wife had a quarrel, and his wife left him. He imagined that his wife and Doc. were together at Doc.’s sister’s. Says he went there about one or two o’clock in the night, and asked if his wife was there and was told that she was not. He lay around the house, and after day they both came out of the house and started off the same way. I spoke to my wife and she agreed to go home with me. We started along together and pretty soon I heard a gun fire. I looked and Doc. was in about sixty yards of me, his gun pointing towards me. The shot seemed to strike the ground before they got to me, then arose and struck my coat and pants, but did not enter.  He then started towards me cursing saying he was going to kill me. I moved to try to get away from him. Pretty soon my brother ran and overtook me, and said that Doc had run round and was going to cut me off. I then ran.

Mollie Pender, Henry’s wife, tells about the same as Henry, as to the assault.

Done this the 12th day of March 1912   Elias G. Barnes J.P.


  • Henry and Mollie Pender

On 7 March 1900, Henry Pender, 24, son of Ed and Caroline Pender, married Molly Pitt, 22, daughter of Joe Pitt, in Black Creek, Wilson County.

In the 1910 census of Jackson township, Nash County, N.C.: H

In the 1920 census of Wilson, Wilson County: on Raleigh Road, farmer Henry Pender, 45; wife Molly, 41; and daughter Sally, 10.

In the 1928 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., city directory: Pender Wm H (c; Mollie) lab 607 E Green

In the 1930 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., city directory: Pender Henry (c; Mollie) farm hd h 710 Viola 

In the 1930 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 710 Viola, Earnest McCray, 22, grocery store deliveryman; wife Lizzie, 19; and son LeVaughn, 3; plus roomers Mollie Pender, 48, private servant, and husband Henry, 45, farm laborer.

In the 1940 census of Wilson, Wilson County: carpenter helper William H. Pender, 59; wife Mollie, 52, tobacco factory stemmer; and lodgers Eva Reid, 25, from Elizabeth City, N.C., and Mary J. Pitt, 27, born in Tarboro, N.C. Both were public school teachers.

William H. Pender died 21 October 1945 at Mercy Hospital. Per his death certificate, he was born 21 May 1889 in Edgecombe County, N.C., to Edward Pender and Caroline Atkinson; was married to Mollie Pender; and worked as a carpenter.

Wilson Daily Times, 11 April 1970.

  • Doc Applewhite

In the 1900 census of Stantonsburg township, Wilson County: farmer Enos Applewhite, 71; wife Cherry, 54; children Henry [age illegible], Virginia, 20, Dock, 19, and George, 13; grandson Enos, 2; and niece Rosa Atkinson, 16.

On 22 July 1903, Dock Applewhite, 21, of Stantonsburg, son of Elias [sic]and Cherry Applewhite, married Mary Simms, 23, of Stantonsburg, daughter of Stephen and Zanie Simms, at Stephen Simms’ house in Wilson County.

In the 1910 census of Stantonsburg township, Wilson County: railroad section hand Dock Applewhite, 27; wife Mollie, 27; and children David, 6, and Annie, 3.

In 1918, Dock Applewhite registered for the World War I draft in Greenville, Pitt County, N.C. Per his registration card, he was born 15 March 1881 and worked as a fireman for Greenville Cooperage & Tun Company.

In the 1920 census of Stantonsburg township, Wilson County: farm laborer Dock Applewhite, 39; wife Mary, 38, laundress; and children David and Annie M., 14; plus Sadie Cozart, 24.

Dock Applewhite died 20 January 1927 in Greenville, Pitt County. Per his death certificate, he was about 25 years old [actually, 46]; was born in Wilson County to Enos and Cherry Applewhite; and was married to Mary Applewhite.

Criminal Action Papers, 1912, Wilson County Records, North Carolina State Archives.

G.W. Joyner tells what he saw.

Wilson Daily Times, 17 October 1911.

That was on page 2. On page 8 of the same edition:

Wilson Daily Times, 17 October 1911.

George Washington Joyner came forward with eyewitness testimony that a white boy, rather than a Black man, had thrown a bottle that injured another white boy at a carnival.

Clipping courtesy of J. Robert Boykin III.

The murder of Brother Carey C. Hill.

This brief blurb caught my eye. Two white men shot and killed a Black man in Wilson 1881? What were the circumstances?

Daily Commercial News (New Bern, N.C.), 20 October 1881.

On 21 October 1881, the Wilson Advance reported the murder and inquest. The available scan of that issue is poor quality; here is a transcription:




On Tuesday morning the usual repose of our peace loving community was sadly broken, and stirred into a state of high excitement by the announcement that Carey Hill, a negro carpenter of our town, and a man of good character, had been murdered in Wilson on the train the night before while on his way to Tarboro. And this excitement was increased and intensified when it became generally known that two young gentlemen of high respectability were implicated in the terrible tragedy — in that awful and pulse-stilling act which had its sombre setting in the [illegible] ending scene of bloody death. It seems that Mr. John Gardner, son of T.J. Gardner, one of our wealthiest and most prominent merchants, and Mr. Ben May, of Pitt, who is connected with some families in this place of the highest social position concluded on Monday afternoon that they would take a trip down to Goldsboro. In returning that night on the 11 o’clock train, they took umbrage at what they conceived to be an offensive remark made by one of the train hands, a colored porter, and determined to redress their grievance and per [illegible] of their displeasure. In their search for the porter, they became engaged in a fuss with Cary Hill the deceased, and from the continuous assault made upon him, as will be seen by following the line of evidence as marked [illegible] by the examination before the Coroner’s Jury, he received the whole fury of the storm which had been nursing its muttering wrath for another, and which was but ready to pour out its slumbering fires upon any who came within its reach.

In order that our reader may know all the circumstances connected with such evidence bearing upon the case as we gained from the witnesses before the Coroner’s Jury — a jury composed of most excellent citizens, to wit: T.C. Davis, J.H. Baker, L.H. Fulcher, A.G. Pearson, Wm. Mercer, and Gray Farmer; and right here we stop, at present, to thank Mr. Peele, the prompt and efficient Coroner, for his courtesy on that occasion.

The first witness, Mr. W.E. Oat[illegible] being sworn testified as follows: “I got on the train Monday night Goldsboro with Mr. Geo. Hackney of Rocky Mount. I heard a fuss on the outside and went to the door to see what it was about. A gentle man, whom I afterward learned to be Mr. Ben May, was talking in a loud tone and seemed to be very angry. A bystander told me a train hand had offended him, and that he was cursing him. About this time the train moved off, and Gardner and May came in and took seats in the first-class car. The colored porter passed through and May stopped him and demanded an apology, which the porter granted. May then told him to go about his business. Before reaching Fremont Gardner and May went to the smoking car, and prompted by curiosity I followed. When I got in, I found them abusing Carey Hill, the deceased, and I saw Gardner strike him twice in the face and made him sit down. The conductor then took May and Gardner back into the first-class car. As they left, May swore that he would whip him when he got to the station. Upon running into Wilson and nearing the depot, May went in the 2nd-class car again, and there met Hill who was in the act of coming out. Hill had a cane, when he raised when he saw May advancing upon him with right hand in hip pocket. Hill backed to the rear of the car, saying “let me alone ,” Gardner rushed [illegible] seized May, whereupon Hill jumped over two seats and made his escape out the door. May and Gardner both followed him out. Gardner then took hold of May, and with the assistance of the conductor got him near the end of the platform. May said, ‘let me go and I won’t go back there any more.’ The conductor let go, when May and Gardner both started back to the car. Just then I went to the back, and about that time the train started, and soon I heard report of pistol and almost immediately saw those young men run across the street to an old house, in full view of the train. When the train stopped and began to run back to the depot the two men ran up Barnes Street. I got on the car, and found Carey Hill on the rear platform of the ladies’ car in a dying condition. We put him in the waiting room of the depot when he breathed heavily for a moment or two and then expired.”

George Hackney being sworn testified: “I took the car at Goldsboro; while waiting for the train to start, I heard a fuss on the outside — cursing, and abusive language used freely; did not get up to see what was it was about; as the train moved off, two young men, John Gardner and Ben May came in and took seats. After the conductor had collected fare, May said ‘let’s go in and settle with that dam scoundrel,’ whereupon both immediately went in the second-class car. In a few moments I heard a fuss and blows. The conductor heard the fuss and went in and brought the two young men out. Gardner bragging about having knocked the negro down. As the train was nearing Fremont, the young men went in again and I soon heard another fuss. I went to the window near the door and looked in, and saw a crowd together in the car, but paid no attention to it. They came back this time on their own accord, but both declaring that they would whip the man when they got too Wilson. Pretty soon May proposed again to go in and settle with the ‘dam scoundrel.’ Gardner tried then to keep him back, but did not succeed, but followed him into the car. I heard another fuss and soon saw the conductor bringing them in again. They took seats and soon both went in again, and soon returned. After leaving Black Creek, May proposed to go in again but Gardner succeeded in keeping him back. When nearing Wilson May went in second-class car, I lost sight of Gardner. May went up to Hill and this was the first time I recognized him as the one against whom their spite was directed. May made a threat by striking his fist and putting his right hand in hip pocket, and said something which I did not understand. Hill told him to get out, that he would knock him down if he came to him, but was retreating all the time. Hill, going as far as he could, jumped over the sears and passed by May, who followed him with pistol drawn. Hill seemed that he wanted to get rid of them. Both got off — May immediately after him, and then I lost sight of both. In a few minutes, I saw May and Gardner come up, both cursing and saying if they could find him they would kill the ‘dam scoundrel.’ As the whistle sounded, Hill got on the car where I was, and seemed terribly excited. He recognized me, and began to tell me how it occurred. As the train was moving off, May and Gardner jumped on the platform, and made for Hill. I stepped between them and seized May. Gardner jumped at Hill, who rain in the first-class car, but could not get through in consequence of aisle being blocked up. Gardner then jumped on him, and began to strike him. Hill then began to use his stick rapidly, and Gardner retreated under the blows to the platform. Just then I turned May loose who was apparently satisfied, although he still had his pistol in the hand, and I then stepped back in the car. Almost immediately I heard Hill said, ‘I am shot,’ but I heard no report of pistol. Hill ran through the first-class car repeating three times, ‘I am shot,’ and fell at the rear end of the car on the platform. I went immediately to him, and raised his head. He recognized me and said, ‘Mr. Hackney, I am dying innocently,’ and expired almost immediately.”

Capt. A.H. Cutts, being sworn testified: “While my train was at Goldsboro on Monday night I heard a fuss about the rear end of the train, and pretty soon I saw a young man walking aside of train and peeping in as if looking for some one. He came in baggage car where I was standing and peeped in. I asked him whom he wanted and he walked off. About then the train started, and when I went through to collect fare I saw this same young man and another one whom I read was Gardner. While collecting fare from Gardner, the other man who was sitting with a lady struck a match and lit a cigar. I told him it was against rules of company to smoke in that car, and he put down the cigar. I then went in second-class car. Pretty soon my colored porter came to me and told me that man was smoking again. I went in and asked him to stop, which he did. Upon nearing Fremont, these young me came out on the platform where I and my porter were standing. May asked if the porter did not tell about his smoking. I replied yes, that was his duty and he did right. May said that the porter was a dam scoundrel, and that he intended to whip him. I told him to go back in the car which he did. Pretty soon they came back in the smoking car, and I told my porter to go in the baggage car and lock the door. They began to curse and roar around, when the deceased spoke out and said he would stand up for the colored porter and see him have fair play. I told him to hush and not have anything to do with it. Gardner then cursed him and asked him if he took it up, and then they began to rustle about, when I took the tough man back in the other car. After getting to Wilson I saw Gardner who asked me to help him get May out. I took him by the arm and got him near the ticket office, when he promised he would not go back. I let him go and he ran across the end of the mail car platform and jumped down on the other side and ran back. Gardner told me to watch at this end and he would keep him back at the other end. About that time, the train started, and when i went to step on the platform I saw Carey Hill on the platform with a hickory stick, waving it and making his threats, saying what he would do, &c. I told him to go in, and I went on to the baggage car. About the time I got there my porter came to me and told me a man had been shot. I pulled the bell-rope, stopped the train and had it backed to depot. I had the man put in the waiting room and he died in a few minutes. I did not see the shooting.”

Jim Peacock, col., corroborated Capt. Cutts as to Hill’s offering to take up for the colored porter. But went further and stated that Gardner pulled Hill’s beard, slapped his face and threatened to kill him when he got to Wilson, saying that he had money to back him, &c.

Charles Freeman, a fireman on the freight train, was in the second-class car that night, and saw May and Gardner come in, and pull Hill’s beard, slap his face, and cuffed him about generally. Hill did nothing and seemed anxious to avoid a difficulty. He was positive of the fact that Hill did not offer to take up for the porter.

At Wilson he saw them fighting and saw two pistol flashes but did not know who did the shooting.

For want to space we had to abbreviate the testimony of Peacock and Freeman, but the above is the substance. Dr. Peacock told where the wounds were located; one six inches below top of chest and a little to left of center, the other four inches below the first. Either would have produced death. In accordance with these facts, the Jury brought in the verdict that the deceased came to his death by shots fired from a pistol in the hand of May or Gardner, or both.

The young men are still at large.

Newspapers across North Carolina picked up the story, including the Gastonia Gazette:

Gastonia Gazette, 22 October 1881.

The Goldsboro Star, a newspaper owned and edited by African-American lawyer George T. Wassom, also published a piece:

The Goldsboro Star, 29 October 1881.

Disturbed by what he viewed as inaccurate reporting about Hill’s murder, Thomas E. Scott, an African-American barber living in Wilmington, N.C., submitted to the Wilmington Post his own eyewitness version of events. He had harsh words for Captain Cutts, the conductor.

Wilmington Post, 13 November 1881.

A month after the murder, King David’s Lodge No. 24, a Prince Hall Masonic lodge in Kinston, North Carolina, submitted to a New Bern newspaper a resolution that was reprinted in the Goldsboro Star:

The Goldsboro Star, 26 November 1881.

The Wilmington Post ran a second letter to the editor on November 27, this one from a Washington, D.C., writer who listed only his initials — R.R.D. — and strongly proclaimed an opinion that May and Gardner should not escape justice.

Wilmington Post, 27 November 1881.

I have found nothing to indicate that either Benjamin May or John Gardner was arrested, tried or convicted. Eleven months after his murder, the Wilson Advance included in an listing of moneys paid out by the Town of Wilson the following expenses related to Carey Hill’s inquest.

Wilson Advance, 29 September 1882.

The death of little Etta Parker.

“Pistol ball in brain by toy pistol in hands of boy unintentionally.”

I have not been able to learn more about the death of six year-old Etta Parker, who was fatally shot in the head by an unidentified boy with a toy pistol. (What kind of toy gun shot “pistol balls”? A BB gun?)

State vs. Lee Simms.

In the summer of 1913, justice of the peace Elias G. Barnes issued an arrest warrant for Lee Simms for assault with a deadly weapon against his wife Mary Simms.

Barnes took this testimony in support of the charge:

State vs. Lee Simms  }   Before Elias G. Barnes J.P.

Mary Simms, witness for the State, being sworn says: I am Lee Simms’ wife. On Sunday the 15th day of June 1913, in the morning I asked Lee to cut some stove-wood for me. He got his gun and tried to shoot me, but my daughter and myself got hold of the gun and prevented his shooting me. While we were strugling for the gun, Lee fired it off, but it did not hit any one.

Maggie Simms, being duly sworn says: Mother asked pappa to cut her some stove-wood. He said he would stop her from following him. He went into a room, and got his gun. I took hold of his gun. We went into the yard. Mother helped me, and we kept him from shooting her. While we were scuffling over the gun, father fired it off, but it did not hit any one.

W.M. Michener [Mitchner], being sworn, says: I was passing Lee Simms’ on Sunday morning, and saw him, his wife, and daughter in the yard, they seemed to be scuffling over something. His wife asked me to come and help her. I thought they were playing. While I while I [sic] was noticing a gun fired.


On 12 August 1887, Lee Simms 23, and Mary Harriss, 16, were married in Wilson County. Disciples minister P.E. Hines performed the ceremony in the presence of Joe Patterson, Martha Winstead, and Addie Blount.

In the 1900 census of Wilson, Wilson County: brickmason Lee Simes, 35; wife Marry, 29, washing; daughters Bessie, 13, tobacco stemmer, and Maggie, 9.

In the 1910 census of Wilson, Wilson County: on Saratoga Road, Lee Sims, 44; wife Mary, 40, laundress; and daughter Maggie, 18.

In the 1912 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., city directory: Simms Lee (c) bricklyr h south of Nash nr Carroll

In the 1916 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., city directory: Simms Lee (c) bricklyr h 813 E Nash

In the 1920 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., city directory: Simms Lee (c) bricklyr h 648 Wainwright

In the 1920 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 648 Wainwright Street, Lee Simms, 56; wife Mary, 47; daughter Maggie Williams, 25; and son-in-law Sam Williams, 26.

In the 1928 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., city directory: Simms Lee (c; Mary) brklyr h 410 Hadley

In the 1930 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 410 Hadley Street, owned and valued at $1300, Lee Simms, 66, building bricklayer; wife Mary L., 60, laundress; and adopted son Clarence Williams, 6.

In the 1940 census of Wilson, Wilson County: ay 205 South Vick, widow Mary Simms, 70; daughter Bessie Woodard, 52, tobacco factory laborer; son-in-law Luther Woodard, 53, oil mill laborer; and grandson Clarence Woodard, 16; daughter Maggie Sharpe, 45; and son-in-law Van Sharpe, 45.

Criminal Action Papers, 1913, Wilson County Records, North Carolina State Archives.