Ward

Odd jobs, no. 1.

The occupation and industry columns in federal population schedules sometimes yield unusual results, even in an era in which most African-Americans in Wilson worked as farm laborers, tobacco factory hands, or domestic workers.

In the 1930 census, 22 year-old Alfonso Ward gave his occupation as:

I have not been able to find any additional information on Ward’s career as a roadshow comedian, though he likely played chitlin’ circuit venues.

——

In the 1920 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 122 East Street, laborer John Ward, 28; wife Addie, 27; and children Alfonsa, 13, Edgar, 8, Oritta, 5, Thelma, 2 months, and Jos[illegible], 3. 

In the 1930 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 112 East Street, rented at $12/month, widow Addie Ward, 37, and children Alfonso, 22, Edgear, 17, Othena, 16, Jasper, 14, and Thelma, 10. 

In the 1930 Hill’s Wilson, N.C., city directory: Ward Alfonso (c) hlpr r 112 East

In 1940, Alfonso Ward registered for the World War II draft in Kings County, New York. Per his draft card, he was born 1 May 1908 in Wilson, N.C.; lived at 3040 B 7th Street, [Brooklyn], Kings County; his contact was friend Flossie Barrington, 614 Ocean View Avenue; and he worked for Louis Super, 419 B[righton] B[each] Avenue, Kings County. Ward’s address was amended to 413 Bri[ghton] Beach Ave. on 15 February 1943. [Per his signature, Ward spelled his first name “Alfonza.”]

Bethel buys its acre.

In November 1877, steward Lawrence Ward, acting on behalf of Bethel A.M.E. [Zion] Church, purchased the acre of land on which its church stood on the road leading from Stantonsburg to Contentnea Creek near Ruffin’s Bridge. The church is now located about a mile north of Stantonsburg, but its cemetery remains on the original acre. Ruffin’s Bridge was originally known as Peacock’s Bridge, and Peacock’s Bridge Road runs east of present-day NC Highway 58. 

Deed Book 14, page 366.

State of North Carolina, Wilson County } This deed made this the 16th day of November 1877 by F.M. Moye of Wilson County and State of North Carolina to Lawrence Ward of said County & State holding the office of Steward in the A.M.E. church known as Bethel Witnesseth that the said F.M. Moye in consideration of Twenty Five Dollars to him paid by the said Lawrence Ward as the representative of said church the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged have bargained & sold by these presents do bargain & sell & convey to the said Lawrence Ward and his successors in office for the benefit & use of said Church a certain lot of land in said county, it being the land on which the building of the said church is situated on the North side of Big Contentnea creek near Ruffins bridge and on the east side of the road leading to said Bridge and is a part of the tract of land Known as the Davis land containing one acre To have and to hold the aforesaid lot of and all privileges thereto belonging to the said Lawrence Ward and his successors in office for the benefit & use of said church And the said F.M. Moye covenant that he is seized of said lot of land in fee and has the right to convey the same in fee simple and that he will warrant & defend the said title to the same against the claims of all persons whatsoever In testimony whereof the said F.M. Moye have hereunto set his hand & seal the say & year above written  /s/ F.M. Moye   Attest J.K. Peacock, J.S. Ellis 

——

In the 1870 census of Saratoga township, Wilson County: Lawrence Ward, 25, farmer, owned $1000 in real property; wife Mary, 20; and daughter Mary A., 3; Chloie, 14, Lydia, 11, Jennie, 10, and Patrick Pope, 7; and Sophia Ward, 48.

In the 1880 census of Stantonsburg township, Wilson County: farmer Lawrence Ward, 38; wife Mary, 29; daughter Mary, 14; mother Sophia, 58; and farm worker Henry Lane, 12. [Their proximity in 1870 and 1880 to the house and plantation of Dr. David G.W. Ward suggests that Lawrence and Sophia Ward had been owned by the doctor in slavery.]

In the 1900 census of Nahunta township, Wayne County: Laurence Ward, 55, farmer; wife Mary, 43; mother Sophia, 84; and granddaughter Amie Yelverton, 13.

In the 1910 census of Pikeville township, Wayne County: Lawrence Ward, 66, farmer; mother Sophia, 98; wife Mary, 60; and granddaughter Amy Yelverton, 21.

Lawrence Ward died 29 August 1918 in Wilson. Per his death certificate, he was born in 1831  in Wilson County to Sophia Ward; was married; was a retired farmer; and was buried in Wayne County.

Deed book 14, page 366, Register of Deeds Office, Wilson; aerial photo courtesy of Google Maps.

Madam Walker and Doctor Ward.

The Netflix limited series Self Made is refocusing attention on Madam C.J. Walker, the millionaire entrepreneur and empowerer of women best known for her haircare empire. The series is honest about being more “inspired by” Madam Walker’s life than true to it. Chockablock with B-list black star power (plus Octavia Spencer), Self Made is entertaining if you don’t think about it too hard. Ultimately, however, its heavy-handed resort to tropes and types and its soap opera style do a disservice to her story. Anyone wanting a closer truth should turn to A’Lelia Bundles’ On Her Own Ground, or my fave, Beverly Lowry’s Her Dream of Dreams: The Rise and Triumph of Madam C.J. Walker. Among other things, you’ll find an important part of Walker’s story completely omitted from Self-Made — her relationship with Dr. Joseph H. Ward, an African-American physician born in Wilson about 1872.

When she first arrived in Indianapolis in 1910, Walker boarded with Joseph and Zella Locklear Ward and gave beauty culture demonstrations in their parlor.

Indianapolis Recorder, 12 February 1910.

Indianapolis Recorder, 5 March 1910.

Walker and her daughter Lelia Robinson grew close to the Wards, and Dr. Ward was Madam’s personal physician the remainder of her life. He was at her bedside when she died.

The Wards accompanied Madam Walker on a drive to Kansas City, Missouri, where she addressed the National Educational Congress on “How the Negro Woman May Success in Business.” Indianapolis Star, 13 July 1913.

On a drive from Saint Louis to Kansas City, the automobile in which the Wards and Walker were traveling was jumped by a wild animal. Indianapolis Star, 28 September 1913.

Screen Shot 2020-03-23 at 12.24.44 PM.png

Also in 1913, on the steps of the newly dedicated Y.M.C.A., Madam Walker with Booker T. Washington and, behind them, her lawyer Freeman Ransom and Dr. Joseph H. Ward.  

From Lowry’s Her Dream of Dreams:

“By Friday, Ward informs the household that Madame Walker cannot last longer than Sunday. On Saturday night, about midnight, she slips into unconsciousness. And her faithful friends and doctors and family gather around her bed; they are religious people who also believe in love and company, and that no one should pass from this life into the next alone. And so they wait, hushed, whispering, watching her, waiting.

“Sunday dawns warms and clear, and early rays of the sun crack through the drawn damask curtains and perhaps fall in splinters across the rose silk coverlet on Madame’s bed. At seven o’clock her people are still there, but no one feels her go and no one knows when she dies until Ward turns and says, ‘It’s over.’

“And if they weep it is with relief, for the end of her suffering. Her dying words, Ward later reports, were ‘I want to live to help my race.'”

Photo courtesy of Madam Walker Collection, Indiana Historical Society.

A Service of Memory for Mrs. Edith Winstead Ward.

Screen Shot 2020-02-08 at 8.03.26 AM.png

Screen Shot 2020-02-08 at 8.03.46 AM.png

——

Joe Ward, 23, of Stantonsburg, son of P.W. and Cherry Ward, married Edith B. Winstead, 18, of Stantonsburg, daughter of William Heath and Amanda W. Williams, on 13 May 1924 at Edith B. Winstead’s house in Stantonsburg. Witnesses were Willie F, W.H. Jones and Lavenia Jones, all of Stantonsburg.

James Herman Ward died 25 August 1928 in Stantonsburg township, Wilson County. Per his death certificate, he was born 15 June 1927 in Wilson County to Joe Ward of Greene County and Edith Winstead or Wilson County. he was buried in Bethel graveyard.

In the 1930 census of Stantonsburg township, Wilson County: Joe Ward, 30, lumber company planer; wife Edith B., 22; and children Marie, 4, and Mildred, 2 months.

In the 1940 census of Stantonsburg township, Wilson County: Amanda Williams, 63, widow, domestic, and grandchildren William, 15, and Edward Jones, 11, and Marie, 14, Mildred, 10, Braxton, 9, and Preston Ward, 6.

Amanda Williams died 24 December 1955 in Stantonsburg township, Wilson County. Per her death certificate, she was born 3 May 1883 in Pitt County to Isaac Winstead and Jane Winstead and was a widow. Informant was Edith Ward, Stantonsburg.

Joseph Ward died 19 September 1971 in Wilson. Per his death certificate, he was born 5 May 1896 to Perry Ward and Cherry Speight; was married to Edith Ward; lived at 919 Poplar Street, Wilson; and his informant was Mildred Kirby, 125 Powell Street, Wilson.

Funeral program courtesy of Lisa R.W. Sloan. 

Fatal fall from truck.

Screen Shot 2020-01-17 at 10.00.19 PM.png

Wilson Daily Times, 3 January 1941.

——

In the 1910 census of Wilson, Wilson County: farmer Frank Ward, 26; wife Lizzie, 23; son Columbus, 11 months; and niece Geneva, 8.

On 7 September 1913, Frank Ward, 31, son of Frank and Rhoda Ward, married Minnie Harriss, 21, daughter of Arch and Rose Harriss. Holy Church minister E.E. Hicks performed the ceremony at Willie Ward’s residence in the presence of Willie Ward, Willie Ellis and Johney Rhodes.

In 1918, Frank Ward registered for the World War I draft in Wilson County. Per his registration card, he was born in March 1884, worked on Henry Love’s farm, and his nearest relative was Minnie Ward.

In the 1920 census of Wilson township, Wilson County: Frank Ward, 40, farmer; wife Minnie, 28; and children Zeus, 10, Lucile, 8, Minnie Belle, 5, Frank, 5, Floyd, 4, Mary, 2, Columbus, 10, and Albert, 8.

In the 1930 census of Wilson township, Wilson County: Frank Ward, 44, farmer; wife Minnie, 35; and children Albert, 20, Lucile, 19, Frank, 14, Floyd, 13, Mary, 12, Hazel, 9, David, 6, Estell, 4, Rosa, 3, and James, 1, and grandson William, 11 months.

In the 1940 census of Wilson, Wilson County: Frank Ward, 52, City of Wilson laborer; wife Minnie, 48; and children David, 16, farm laborer, Estell, 13, and James, 9.

In 1940, Columbus Ward registered for the World War II draft in Wilson County. Per his registration card, he was born 15 October 1909 in Wilson County; he lived at 808 Sugg Street; his contact was father Frank Ward; and he worked for C. Woodard.

Frank Ward died 1 January 1941 in Wilson. Per his death certificate, he was born 10 September 1884 in Wilson County to Frank Ward and Rosa Ward; worked as a laborer for the  city of Wilson; and he lived at 808 Suggs Street. He was buried in Rest Haven cemetery. Minnie Ward was informant. Ward’s cause of death was “fractured skull/falling from truck.” (Ward was declared dead at Woodard-Herring Hospital, which ordinarily treated whites only.)

113, 115 and 117 North East Street.

The one hundred-twentieth in a series of posts highlighting buildings in East Wilson Historic District, a national historic district located in Wilson, North Carolina. As originally approved, the district encompasses 858 contributing buildings and two contributing structures in a historically African-American section of Wilson. (A significant number have since been lost.) The district was developed between about 1890 to 1940 and includes notable examples of Queen Anne, Bungalow/American Craftsman, and Shotgun-style architecture. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988.

As described in the nomination form for the East Wilson Historic District, the houses at #113, #115, #117 are: “ca. 1908; 1 story; shotgun with board-and-batten veneer.” The board-and-batten has been replaced with clapboard.

The 1913 Sanborn fire insurance map of Wilson shows that there were originally six endway houses (with two different floor plans) on this stretch of North East Street. Street numbering changed about 1922, so the houses above were originally #114, #116 and #118.

In the 1928 Wilson, N.C., city directory: Ward Ussell (c; Nettie) lab h 113 N East; 115 N East Vacant; Cooper Jack C (c; Nora) lab  h 117 N East

In the 1930 Wilson, N.C., city directory: Bethea Mamie (c) smstrs h 113 N East; Hargrove Andrew (c; Ada) lab h 115 N East; Artis Amelia (c) factory hand  h 117 N East

In the 1930 census of Wilson, Wilson County: at 113 North East, paying $6/month rent, Mamie Bathea, 40, laundress; Pattie Manual, 60, mother, laundress; George Kannan, 30, brother, taxi chauffuer; Pearl Manual, 20, nurse for private family; daughters Ruth S., 14, Sally S., 12, and Adel Manual, 10; cousins Louisa, 10, and Ralph Kannan, 8; and daughter Mamie Manual, 4.

In the 1941 Wilson, N.C., city directory: Bethea Mamie (c) smstrs h113 N East; Bowman Rufus (c; Daisy) tob wkr h115 N East; Hines Boyd (c; Betty) tob wkr h117 N East

In the 1947 Wilson, N.C., city directory: Bethea Annie (c) h 113 N East; Grimes Fagin (c; Addie) lab h 115 N East; Williams Rematha Mrs (c) h 117 N East

Photo by Lisa Y. Henderson, August 2019.

The obituary of Rosa Lee Moye Ward, 101.

Rose Lee Moye Ward (1918-2019).

“Mrs. Rosa Lee Ward, 101, of Wilson, NC, passed away on December 10, 2019 at Wilson Medical Center in Wilson, NC.

“The funeral service is scheduled for Saturday, December 14, 2019 at 1:00 pm at L N Forbes OFW Baptist Tabernacle, 1800 Lane Street, Ext., Wilson, NC.  A public visitation will be held Friday, December 13, 2019 from 3:00 to 7:00 p.m. at Stevens Funeral Home, 1820 Martin Luther King Jr. Pkwy., Wilson, NC.   Burial will follow in Saint Delight Cemetery, Walstonburg, NC.

“Mrs. Ward was preceded in death by:  her husband, Willie Ward; one son, Willie E. Ward; her parents, Johnnie Moye and Sarah Moye; three brothers, Lloyd Moye, John Junior Moye and Glaster Moye; and three sisters, Betty L. Gay, Sarah E. Williams and Hattie M. Morgan.

“Many loving and cherished memories will linger in the hearts of:  her daughter, Veatrice A. Mills (Norman J.) of Wilson; three grandchildren, Clifton E. Cheeks (Barbara) of Randallstown, MD, Roland J. Cheeks (Carla) of Atlanta, GA and Kevin D. Cheeks of Washington, DC; four great grandchildren, LaShaunda P. Griffith (Ronnie) of Baltimore, MD, Clifton E. Cheeks, Jr. (Rajanna) and Maurice J. Cheeks (Cheryl), all of Atlanta, GA and Kevonda R. Proctor of Waldorf, MD; six great grandchildren, Cayden Cheeks, Royce Cheeks, Alijah Cheeks, Jackson Griffith, Jordan Cheeks and Za’Kari Barton; her daughter-in-law,  Tanya Fletcher-Ward of Wilson, NC; her former daughter-in-law, Doris Ward of Temple Hill, MD; one sister, Thelma Barnes of Virginia Beach, VA; one brother, Hubert M. Moye (Mary Alice) of Hyattsville, MD; and a host of nieces, nephews, cousins, other relatives and friends.

“Arrangements are entrusted to Stevens Funeral Home, 1820 Martin Luther King, Jr. Parkway, Wilson, NC.”

——

Willie Ward, 21, of Greene County, son of Mayo and Eliza Ward, married Rosa Lee Moye, 17, of Greene County, daughter of Johnnie and Sarah Moye, in Greene County on 7 March 1936.

Dr. Ward challenged Jim Crow.

Indiana History Blog published Nicole Poletika’s detailed look at Dr. Joseph H. Ward‘s role in challenging segregation as the head of Tuskegee, Alabama’s Veterans Hospital No. 91 in the 1920s and ’30s.

Screen Shot 2019-11-24 at 5.34.46 AM.png

Dr. Ward is on the front row, center (next to the nurse) in this 1933 photograph of Veterans Hospital staff.  Photo courtesy of VA History Highlights, “First African American Hospital Director in VA History,” U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

For more on Dr. Ward, who was born in Wilson about 1869, see here and here and here and here and here.

[Sidenote: Dr. Ward was not born to “impoverished parents” per the article, though it is possible that he himself gave this gloss on his early life. Rather, his father was Napoleon Hagans, a prosperous freeborn farmer in nearby Wayne County, and his mother was Mittie Ward, a young freedwoman whose family moved into town after Emancipation from the plantation of Dr. David G.W. Ward near Stantonsburg.]

Hat tip to Zella Palmer for pointing me to this article. She is Dr. Ward’s great-granddaughter, and they are my cousins.

Minerva Louise Ward Artis Biggins Hanks.

After he left Wilson, Joseph H. Ward‘s close family members migrated to Washington, D.C. Once he was established in Indianapolis, Indiana, however, his mother Mittie Ward Vaughn and younger half-sister Minerva Vaughn, also known as Minerva Ward, joined him in the Midwest.

——

In the 1880 census of Wilson, Wilson County: Sarah Darden, 57, son-in-law Algia Vaughn, 23, daughter Mittie, 22, and grandchildren Joseph, 8, Sarah, 6, and Macinda Vaughn, 5 months. [Joseph “Vaughn” was actually Joseph Ward, listed with his stepfather’s surname.]

In the 1900 census of Washington, D.C: William Moody, 27, wife Sarah S., 24, and children Augustus, 5, and Crist Moody, 4, plus sister-in-law Minerva Vaughn, 10, mother-in-law Mittie Vaughn, 46, and mother Fannie Harris, 55, all born in North Carolina.

Indianapolis News, 12 December 1903.

Screen Shot 2019-08-18 at 2.50.22 PM.png

Indianapolis News, 2 January 1909.

On 11 June 1910, Minerva Ward married S. Dillard Artis, of Marion, Indiana, son of Thomas and Esther Hall Artis (who were migrants to Indiana from Wayne County, North Carolina.) Per Grant County Indiana Biographies, www.genealogytrails.com, Artis “began as janitor of the court house located in Marion, Indiana in 1900. He later accepted private contracts trimming trees, laying sod and making lawns. This work led to contracts for digging cellars, sewer and cement work, street building, and finally municipal contracting. Dillard had a cement contract connected with the $100,000 residence of J. W. Wilson, with the First Baptist Church and numerous others as well as finishing contracts on tar via roads amounting to $840,000 in 1914.” (Artis’ first wife, Asenath Peters Artis, died in December 1909.)

Indianapolis News, 18 June 1910.

Screen Shot 2019-08-18 at 2.52.09 PM.png

Indianapolis Star, 26 June 1910.

In 1911, Dr. Ward and his young son, Joseph Jr., visited his sister and mother in Marion.

Indianapolis News, 19 August 1911.

Per Google Street View, the house at 920 South Boots Street, Marion, Indiana, today.

Dillard and Minerva Artis’ social life was occasionally noted in Indiana newspapers. For example, in 1915, they were guests of Mr. and Mrs. Beverly Lafoon of Kokomo, Indiana.

Kokomo Daily Tribune, 10 April 1915.

And in 1916 they joined the J.H. Weavers of Weaver, Indiana, for dinner.

Indianapolis Recorder, 4 November 1916.

But just a few weeks later:

Indianapolis Recorder, 25 November 1916.

In the 1920 census of Chicago, Cook County, Illinois: at 486 South Wabash, Diller Artis, 44; wife Minerva, 41; mother-in-law Mittie Ward, 56; and three lodgers, John Smith, 30, and William, 49, and Anna Brown, 46. Artis was working as a railroad poster. [What happened?] Minerva claimed that she and her father were born in Indiana. [In fact, both were born in North Carolina.]

The couple apparently divorced between 1920 and 1923.  On 1 January 1923, Minerva Ward married Jonas B. Biggins in Denver, Colorado. (Dillard Artis died in 1947 in Evanston, Illinois.)

The 1935 Denver, Colorado, city directory lists Jonas B. Biggins as a Pullman porter and Minerva Biggins as a charwoman at the Custom House.

However, per Findagrave.com, Jonas B. Biggins died in 1935 and was buried in Denver. On 15 July 1936, Minerva Louise Biggins married John Q. Hanks in Greeley, Colorado. The couple is listed in the 1936 Denver directory living in the home Minerva had shared with her previous husband.

In the 1940 census of Denver, Colorado: at 1433 East 25th, owned and valued at $4000, John Q. Hanks, 49, butler; wife Minerva, 37; and son Roy, 7. [Roy was born in Illinois. Whose son was he — John’s or Minerva’s?]

In 1942, John Q. Hanks registered for the World War II draft in Denver. Per his registration card, he lived at 1433 – 25th Avenue, Denver; was born 5 February 1889 in Osage, Kansas; his contact was wife Louise Hanks; and he worked for Laurence C. Phipps, 3400 Belcaro Drive, Denver.

John Hanks died in May 1966 in Denver. I have not found a death date for Minerva Ward Artis Biggins Hanks.