enslaved people

“Standing by your old ni**er, are you?”

b Woodard 1 31 1908

News & Observer (Raleigh), 31 January 1908.

This nasty bit of “news” is a sample of the gratuitous racism that permeated Josephus DanielsNews & Observer in the Jim Crow era. Daniels had grown up in and gotten his journalistic start in Wilson and undoubtedly knew all the involved parties well.

Benjamin Woodard, a notorious folk doctor in Wilson County, had been arrested on unclear charges (probably involving bootlegging liquor) and hauled into federal court in Raleigh. Several notable white Wilsonians showed up to serve as counsel and character witnesses, including brothers and law partners Frederick A. Woodard (a former United States Congressman) and Sidney A. Woodard (a state congressman). The Woodards were described as Ben Woodard’s former owners, though F.A. had been a child and S.A. an infant at war’s end. Ben’s owner, then, had been their father, Dr. Stephen Woodard of Black Creek, Wilson County. F.A. requested a nolle prosequi (“nol. pros.”), which is odd, as this is generally a motion made by a prosecutor who wishes to drop charges. The District Attorney here politely indicated his unwillingness to make such a request, but the judge cheerfully entered it anyway. Thus Dr. Ben benefitted from ties forged in slavery and earned an insulting article in the state’s newspaper of record.

The estate of Ann Williamson.

Documents in the 1822 estate files of Ann Williamson of Nash (now Wilson) County include several references to the sale or “hier” of enslaved people. Williamson was the widow of Joseph Williamson, and Bartley Deans was her executor.

Williamson had executed a will in 1807, fifteen years before her death. She listed three enslaved people — women named Pat and Rachel and a boy named Arch.

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A partial inventory in Williamson’s estate records also lists Arch, Rachel and Pat. Rachel and Pat are listed together at one place in documents and may have been mother and daughter. (Note that, as she was only ten years old in 1822, the Pat in in Williamson’s estate could not have been the Pat in her will.)

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Here, record of the sale of “Negro gal Pat” to Eatman Flowers for $353.88; the hire of Arch, first to Jesse Sillivant, then to Thomas Williamson; and the hire of Rachel to Ford Taylor. These three were hired out repeatedly.

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A receipt for partial proceeds from the sale of Jack to John Watson, executor of Luke Collins:

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Estate of Ann Williamson (1822), North Carolina Wills and Estates, 1665-1998 [database on-line], http://www.ancestry.com.

 

 

First-generation freedom, pt. 6.

The sixth in a series of annotated abstracts of Wilson County death certificates of African-Americans born before 1870, the cusp of slavery and freedom. The records are a trove of information about otherwise obscure family relationships among enslaved and free people of color and shed light on intra- and interstate migration patterns in the decades after Emancipation.

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Barnes, Della. Born 1841, Wilson County. Died 29 March 1931, Wilson township. Father, F.K. Moore, Wilson County. Mother, Sarah Moore, Wilson County. Married to Drew Barnes. Common laborer. Resided 501 Murray Street, Wilson. Informant, Bessie Barnes. 

Barnes, Dina B. Born 1849, Wilson County. Died 4 February 1944, Lucama. Father, Simon Dew, Wilson County. Mother, Litha Horne, Wilson County. Widow of Blount Barnes. Farmhand. Buried at Beckie Pate. Informant, Bessie Lee Dew. [In the 1880 census of Black Creek township, Wilson County: Simon Due, 45, wife Litha, 40, and children Laney, 16, Peter, 15, Lucy, 11, Hilliard, 7, Izaih, 9, Arch, 3, Deanah, 10, Hester, 3, Patience, 4 months, and Zilpha Due, 3, and William Horn, 5 months.]

Barnes, Dollie Ann. Born 1856, Nash County. Died 13 January 1929, Wilson. Father, Jacop Boddie, Nash County. Mother, not listed. Married to Lemon Barnes. Tenant farmer for E.K. Wright. Informant, Leona Barnes.

Barnes, Dollie Ann. Born 1861, Wilson County. Died 19 January 1928, Crossroads township. Father, Edmond Williamson, Wilson County. Mother, Bethune Williamson, Wilson County. Married to Matherson Barnes. Common laborer. Buried in Williamson cemetery. Informant, Timothy Seaberry. [In the 1880 census of Crossroads township, Wilson County: Edmund Williamson, 50, wife Thany, 44, and children William, 25, Nicie, 23, Eliza, 22, Eddie, 22, Ally, 19, Pollina, 17, Dolly Ann, 15, Isacc, 12, and Raiford, 7.]

Barnes, Dred. Born 1860, Wilson County. Died 29 September 1930, Black Creek township. Father, Nelson Barnes, Wilson County. Mother, Annie Daniel, Wilson County. Farmer. Married to Lusina Barnes. Informant, Lusina Barnes. [In the 1870 census of Black Creek township, Wilson County: Nelson Barnes, 35, wife Ansey, 36, and children Harriet, 15, Margaret, 12, Dread, 10, Mae, 8, Thomas, 7, and Lon, 2 months.]

Barnes, Ed. Born 1869, North Carolina. Died 5 December 1916, Wilson. Father, George Barnes, North Carolina. Mother, not listed. Married. Brickmason. Buried in Wilson. Informant, Mary Turner.

Barnes, Ellen. Born 1851, Wilson County. Died 17 March 1936, Stantonsburg township. Father, Bill Barnes, Wilson County. Mother, Harriett Barnes, Wilson County. Widow. Resided in Stantonsburg township. Informant, Rev. Wiley Barnes.

Barnes, Fannie. Born 1850, Johnston County. Died 21 August 1918, Wilson. Father, Chas. Barnes, North Carolina. Mother, Nicy Watson, North Carolina. Widow. Resided at Branch farm. Tenant farmer. Buried in Wilson. Informant, Joseph Taylor.

Barnes, Frances. Born 1860, Wilson County. Died 30 May 1938, Wilson. Father, Morrison Woodard, Wilson County. Mother, Martha Thorn, Wilson County. Married to Short W. Barnes. Informant, Maggie Crawford. [In the 1870 census of Wilson township, Wilson County: carpenter Morison Woodard, 47; wife Martha, 32; and children Nancy, 18, Arche, 17, and Cherry, 15, all farm laborers, Rosa, 13, Frances, 8, Jane, 7, John, 4, Martha, 1, and Mary, 2 months.]

Barnes, Frank. Born 1845, Wilson County. Died 29 July 1919, Wilson township. Father, Harry Barnes, North Carolina. Mother, Nellie Barnes, North Carolina. Married. Farmer. Buried Wilson County. Informant, Austin Barnes.

Barnes, Gatsey. Born 1833, Wilson County. Died 4 July 1931, Stantonsburg township. Father, Spencer Roundtree, Wilson County. Mother, Venus Roundtree, Wilson County. Widow. Buried Barnes graveyard.

Barnes, George. Born 12 November 1949, Wilson County. Father  Roundtree, Wilson County. Mother, Annie Barnes, Wilson County. Married to Sylvesta Barnes, Day laborer. Resided Manchester Street, Wilson. Buried in Elm City. Informant, Frank Barnes.

Barnes, George. Born 1835, Wilson County. Died 22 November 1933, Wilson. Father, not listed. Mother, Debra Woodard, Wilson County. Widower. Resided Wilson County Home. Informant, Mistry Woodard.

Barnes, George T. Born 1859, Wilson County. Died 12 April 1935, Wilson. Father, John Barnes, Wilson County. Mother, Della Farmer, Wilson County. Widower of Mary Barnes. ACL Railroad employee. Resided Viola Street, Wilson. Informant, John H. Barnes.

Barnes, George. Born 1855, North Carolina. Died 19 December 1910, Wilson. Father, not listed. Mother, Rosa Barnes, North Carolina. Widower. Laborer. Informant, Tib Barnes. [In the 1870 census of Town of Wilson, Wilson County: washer woman Rosa Barnes, 40; with children George, 13, farm laborer; Auther, 10, brickyard worker; Phebee, 8; and domestic servant Pricilla Joyner, 25.

A negro of the old school, treated and trained right.

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Wilson Times, 20 August 1918.

In the 1870 census of Stantonsburg township, Wilson County: Redmond Barnes, 34, wife Martha, 29, and children Adeline, 7, Mary, 3, and Laura, 1; plus Alfred Simms, 29.

In the 1880 census of Stantonsburg township, Wilson County: Redmon Barnes, 45; wife Martha, 38; children Adline, 19, Mary, 13, Laura, 11, Harriet, 9, James, 7, Margaret, 5, Joan, 4, Martha Ann, 2, and Edd, 1.

In the 1900 census of Toisnot township, Wilson County: Redman Barnes, 65; wife Martha, 69; children Lou, 36, Eddie, 20, Wiley, 19, John, 17; and Kinney, 16, and Adline Ellis, 3.

In the 1910 census of Toisnot township, Wilson County: Martha Barnes, 68; son Wiley Barnes, 29, daughter-in-law Annie Barnes, 19, and grandchildren Lula, 3, and unnamed, 1 month; son-in-law John A. Mayo, 48, daughter Hattie L., 39, and grandchildren John E., 8, and Joseph C., 5; and granddaughter Adeline Ellis, 13.

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Freedom’s eldest.

The 1870 census of Wilson County, North Carolina, recorded 47 African-American men and women reportedly born in the 18th century. Nearly all had been enslaved and had spent 65 or more years in bondage. Forty-five reported having been born in North Carolina; two, in Virginia.

They were:

  • Archibald Artis, born 1800.

In Gardners township: Archebald Artis, 70, wife Rosa, 64, with Tamer, 23, and George Bynum, 25.

  • Harry and Rachel Atkinson, born 1788 and 1795.

In Gardners township: Rachel, 75, Harry, 82, and Isaac Atkinson, 60.

  • Hagar Atkinson, born 1795.

In Springhill township: Thomas Hinnant, 60, wife Hester, 40, and Mahala Hinnant, 4, with Hager Atkinson, 75.

  • Hannah Barnes, born 1786.

In Stantonsburg township: Toby Barnes, 56, and Hannah Barnes, 84.

  • Charles Barnes, born 1792.

In Black Creek township: Charles Barnes, 78, wife Chaney, 60, and Robert Barnes, 11.

  • Violet Barnes, born 1793.

In Stantonsburg township: Drawrey Barnes, 42, wife Violet, 35, and children Sylvia, 15, Sophia, 10, and Esther, 1; Della Edmondson, 24, and Susan, 1; and Violet Barnes, 77.

  • David Barnes, born 1796.

In Stantonsburg township: David Barnes, 74, and wife Venus, 54.

  • Archie Barnes, born 1797.

In Wilson township: Rosa Farmer, 35, with children Gray, 18, Turner, 17, Mary, 16, Thomas, 13, Daniel, 12, Leah, 10, Jefferson, 8, Louisa, 10 months, and Anna, 3, plus Arche Barnes, 73, who worked as a cooper.

  • Lucy Barnes, born 1800.

In Black Creek township: Lawyer Barnes, wife Lizzie, 28, and Lucy Farmer, 70.

  • Rhoda Beaufort, born 1800.

In Wilson township: Rich’d Beaufort, 54, Esther, 35, Rodah, 70, Richard, 14, and Spicey, 13.

  • Guilford Dew, born 1800.

In Black Creek township: Guilford Due, 70, Milbroy, 20, Amos, 22, Penny, 19, Amanda, 4 months, George, 4, William, 8, and James, 7.

In Wilson township: teamster Cally Speight, 23, Margaret, 26, and Ann Speight, 13; Abel Edwards, 84, Argen, 72, Issa, 20, Gracy, 23, and Ann P. Edwards, 5.

  • Hannah Ellis, born 1780.

In Saratoga township:  Jackson Ellis, 45, wife Margaret, 36, and children Hannah, 17, and Hewel, 11; Hannah Ellis, 90; and Lucy, 2, and Mary Simms, 1.

  • Virginia Everett, born 1794.

In Joyners township: Hardy, 55, and Selvia Farmer, 48, and Virginia Everett, 76.

  • Nancy Farmer, born 1799.

In Wilson township: Reuben Farmer, 68, Nancy, 71, and Luke Farmer, 11.

  • Dolly Fisher, born 1790.

In Stantonsburg township: Henry Newsom, 33, wife Fanny, 27, and children Caroline, 3, and Ellic, 1, and Dolly Fisher, 80.

  • Patsey Forbes, born 1800.

In Wilson township: Henry Forbes, 48, wife Louisa, 43, children Charles, 15, Georgiana, 9, and John, 21, plus Patsey Forbes, 70.

  • Abraham and Jonah Hines, born 1785 and 1800.

In Saratoga township: Abraham, 85, and wife Jonah Hines, 70.

In Springhill township: Benjamin Hoketts, 70, wife Clapsly, 60, and Haywood, 27, Daniel, 18, Cain, 16, and Sarah Hoketts, 16, plus Willie Nicholls, 8.

In Old Fields township: Willis Jones, 70, wife Sarah K., 61, and children Willis K., 23, Phaton A., 20, and Bethana, 18.

  • Cassa Jordan, born 1800.

In Wilson township: Squier Coleman, 47, wife Nancy, 36, and children Gray, 18, Mary, 16, Afonza, 9, Margaret, 4, and Thomas Coleman, 2; Cassa Jordan, 70, Riley Jordan, 7, and Thomas Jordan, 25.

  • Penelope Joyner, born 1786.

In Black Creek township: Cherry Barnes, 20, and Penelope Joyner, 84.

  • Martin Locust, born 1789.

In Old Fields township: Martin Locust, 81, in a household headed by white farmer Matthew Lamm, 28.

  • Mariah Locust, born 1798.

In Taylor township: Mariah Locust, 72.

In the Town of Wilson: Estha McGowan, 70, and Alice McGowan, 16.

  • Miles Pipkins, born 1790.

In Cross Roads township: Virginia-born Miles Pipkins, with Anna, 40, Samuel, 10, Richard, 8, and Cherry Pipkins, 6.

  • Judah Mercer, born 1780.

In Saratoga township: Jubiter Parkus, 25, wife Charlotte, 26, and children Nicy, 6, Lucy, 5, and Ida, 11 months, plus Virginia-born Judah Mercer, 90.

  • Leah Moye, born 1780.

In Stantonsburg township: James Moye, 51, wife Edith, 50, children Delsey, 18, Harriet, 16, George, 10, and Warren, 8, plus Learh Moye, 90.

  • Rachel Pitts, born 1790.

In Joyners township: Robert Pitts, 67, wife Violet, 50, children Nicey, 19, and Rinah, 14, plus Rachel Pitts, 80.

  • Caesar Pittman, born 1795.

In Gardners township: Cesar Pittman, 75, and wife Hester, 60.

  • Cherry Rogers, born 1790.

In Saratoga township: Watson Stanton, 65, wife Rosa, 53, children Richard, 15, Adeline, 13, Feribee, 8, and Louisa, 21; midwife Cherry Rogers, 80; and Hardy Barnes, 20.

  • George Rountree, born 1790.

In Taylor township: George Rountree, 70, wife Portice, 66, and children Rich’d, 23, Rose, 23, Sallie, 19, and Ellic, 4.

  • Trecy Scott, born 1790.

In Wilson township: Robert, 40, and Pennie Amerson, 55, with Trecy Scott, 80.

  • Isaac Simpson, born 1795.

In Old Fields township: Isaac Simson, 75.

  • Bryant Simms, born 1790.

In Stantonsburg township: Jeffrey Simms, 24, wife Caroline, 22, and an unnamed one month-old infant, plus Bryant Simms, 80.

  • Anaka Stevens, born 1800.

In Wilson township: Anaka Stevens, 70, and Louisa Stevens, 20.

  • America Taylor, born 1790.

In the Town of Wilson: Harriet, 35, Turner, 14, and William Battle, 53, America Taylor, 80, and Henry Epps, 10.

  • Liberty and Virginia Thomas.

In Gardners township: Liberty, 74, and Virginia Thomas, 72.

  • Abram Thorn, born 1780.

In Wilson township: Abram Thorn, 90, and wife Gilley, 67.

  • Sabra Ward, born 1800.

In Stantonsburg township: Gatlin Barnes, 31, wife Jane, 22, and children Henry, 4, and Bud, 1, Sabra Ward, 70, and Sarah Barnes, 34.

  • Dinah Whitley, born 1800.

In Stantonsburg township: Levi Barnes, 45, wife Olive, 50, and children Samuel, 19, Charles, 10, Rachel, 18, and Celia, 15; Adeline, 23, Dinah, 70, Dewry, 12, and Richard Whitley, 42.

  • London Woodard, born 1791.

In Gardners township: London Woodard, 79, wife Penelope, 59, and children Trecy, 20, Hardy, 19, Haywood, 18, William, 15, and Peninah, 13.

  • Cilla Woodard, born 1800.

In Stantonsburg township: in the household of white farmer James Woodard, Cilla Woodard, 70.

 

 

The last will and testament of Turner Bynum.

On 17 September 1858, Turner Bynum of Edgecombe and Wilson Counties penned a will whose provisions included:

  • to son Robert Bynum, 855 acres on the north side of White Oak swamp in Wilson County, “old negroes Britt and Miles also my negro man Daniel” and ten shares of railroad stock
  • to daughter Nancy Sugg, 1240 acres plus “my four negroes Moriah and her two children Abby and Mike and Jerry and all their increase.” After Nancy’s death, these to be equally distributed among her children, and
  • a ratification of earlier gifts of other, unnamed negroes.

Turner Bynum did not die until 1867, mooting the matter of the distribution of his human chattel.

North Carolina Wills and Estates, 1665-1998 [database on-line], http://www.ancestry.com.

The Woodard plantations.

Woodard Family Rural Historic District is a national historic district located near Wilson, Wilson County, North Carolina. It encompasses 29 contributing buildings in a rural area near Wilson. The district developed between 1830 and 1911 and includes notable examples of Colonial Revival and Greek Revival style architecture. Notable buildings include the William Woodard House, built circa 1832; the Woodard House, build circa 1855; William Woodard Jr. House, built circa 1850; and Elder William Woodard Sr. House, built later. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986.

Per the Nomination Form, the historic district consists of a cluster of farmhouses and outbuildings built on land acquired by William Woodard in the 1820s and ’30s. The 550-acre district in eastern Wilson County is located in the fork of Toisnot Swamp and White Oak Swamp. Most of the land is cleared for agriculture, but there is a large timbered section near Buck Branch. The main houses of the district are located along modern Alternate Highway 264, which largely follows the route of the antebellum Wilson to Greenville Plank Road. “Associated with the agricultural prosperity in the eastern part of present Wilson County during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the Woodard Family Rural Historic District is indicative of the character and diversity of rural life in the area.”

This rural life, of course, was supported by many dozens of enslaved people and, later, tenant farmers. In 1852, after William Woodard was declared dead years after disappearing during a trip to Texas, his estate went into probate, and his assets were distributed to his heirs. Fifty-five men, women and children, valued at more $19,000, were divided thus:

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Their names: Mintas, Siller, Ginny, Rose, Easther, Thain, Dark, Pleasant, Morris, Blont, Ben, Arch, Alford, Tom, Peg, Rody, Silvier, Charlot, Liberty, George, Jonathan, Jim, Rachel, Nancy, Ned, Elizur, Sarah, Cherry, Amy, Harry, Gray, John, Jess, Piety, Edy, Mandy, Little Rose, Mal, Lewis, Lizzy, Sal, Little Mintas, Mariah, Hiliard, Beck, Phereby, Little Ned, Simon, London, Amos, Harrit, Richard, Dennis, Randol, and Venice.

These 55 people did not represent the total of the Woodard family’s human capital however. William’s widow Elizabeth Woodard, for example, had reported 67 slaves in the 1850 federal schedule. Her sons William Jr., Warren, James S., and Calvin reported 21, 21, 14 and 18, respectively, in the 1860 schedule.

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The heart of the Woodard Family Rural Historic District today.

Estate Record of William Woodard, North Carolina Wills and Estates, 1665-1998 [database on-line], http://www.ancestry.com.

Samuel Farmer Sr.’s negroes.

In the name of God Amen, I Samuel Farmer of the County of Edgecomb & State of North Carolina, being low and weak in body, but of perfect sound mind and disposing memory, do make and ordain this to be my last Will and Testament in manner and form following —

First of all I give and recommend my soul into the Hands of Almighty God who gave it, hoping to receive the same again at the great day of resurrection, and my body I recommend to the earth to be buried in a decent Christian burial at the discretion of my Executor, and as touching such worldly estate wherewith it hath pleased God to bless me in this life, I give and dispose of the same in the following manner to witt.

Item. I Give and bequeath unto my son Samuel one negroe boy named John, and four Hundred dollars to him and his Heirs forever

Item. I Give and bequeath unto my daughter Rhoda Sharp one negroe girl named Chany to her and her Heirs forever

Item. I Give and bequeath unto my son Moses one negroe girl named Nan to him and him Heirs forever. Also I give him one tract of land on the Miry Swamp, known by the name of the Parish place to him and his heirs forever

Item. I Give and bequeath unto my Daughter Anna Sharp one negroe girl named Elva to her and her Heirs forever

Item. I Give and bequeath unto my son Isaac one negroe boy named Brittain to her and her Heirs forever. Also I give him the land and plantation whereon I now live after his Mothers Death

Item.I lend to my beloved wife Jerusa, during her natural life, the Land and plantation whereon I now live, also all my negroes not heretofore bequeathed.

Item. The rest of my property I leave to be divided between my wife and all my children after my paying all my Just debts and the negroes lent to my wife I leave to be equally divided between all my children after her death

I do hereby nominate and appoint my sons Samuel and Moses Executors to this my last will and testament, ratifying this and no other to be my Last Will and Testament; in Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 21st day of March 1814.   /s/ Samuel Farmer

Signed sealed and acknowledged in the presence of J. Farmer, Isaac Farmer

——

Samuel Farmer’s home plantation was on Hominy Swamp in what is now Wilson County. (In fact, the waterway runs through the city from northwest to southwest.) His will entered probate in August Term 1817 of Edgecombe County’s probate court.

North Carolina Wills and Estates, 1665-1998 [database on-line], http://www.ancestry.com.

First-generation freedom, pt. 1.

The first in a series of annotated abstracts of Wilson County death certificates of African-Americans born before 1870, the cusp of slavery and freedom. The records are a trove of information about otherwise obscure family relationships among enslaved and free people of color and shed light on intra- and interstate migration patterns in the decades after Emancipation.

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Adams, Alice.  Born 1857, Wilson County. Died 1 June 1927, Cross Roads township. Hemorrhage on brain. Father, Willis Taylor, born Wilson County. Mother, Sarah Rose, born NC. Married to Onley Adams. Worked for Ambrose Loucas. Buried in Lucama. Informant, John Adams, Lucama. [In the 1860 census of Kirbys district, Wilson County: Sarah Rose, 50, and Richard Odom, 21, cooper, both white; plus turpentine worker Willis Taylor, 45, Nancy Rose, 11, and Alice Rose, 7, all mulatto. In the 1870 census of Cross Roads township: Sarah Rose, 59, and daughter Alice, 15, both white. Next door, Willis Taylor, 51, also white. In the 1880 census of Cross Roads township: Willis Taylor, 70, farmer, living alone. Next door: Leonidas Adams, 38, wife Alice, 25, and children Willis, 8, Junius, 7, Mary Ann, 5, and John, 2, plus, Piety Lynch, 54, cook, and John E. Denson, a 30 year-old white fruit tree seller.]

Adams, Della.  Born 9 December 1866, Wilson County. Died 11 April 1952, Lucama, Cross Roads township. Cerebral hemorrhage. Father, Gray Adams. Mother, Mollie Cotton. Widow. Buried at Daniel cemetery, Fremont NC. Informant, Zeno Adams, Route 2, Lucama. [Gray Adams was the informant’s father, not Della’s. (This a common error caused by the manner in which the register of deeds questions the informant.) Per their marriage license, Gray Adams, 23, son of Ben Peacock, married Della Daniel, 20, daughter of Amos and Mollie Daniel, on 4 March 1880 in Wayne County.]

Adams, James Gray. Born 10 September 1860, Wilson County. Died 12 February 1927, Black Creek township. Carcinoma of pancreas. Father, Benjamin Peacock. Mother, Mary Peacock. Wife, Della Daniels Adams. Farmer. Buried at Daniels graveyard, Wayne County. Informant, Alex Adams. [See Della Adams, above.]

Adams, John. Born 1866, Richmond County. Died 6 April 1938, Black Creek township. Lobar pneumonia. Father, John Adams, born Richmond County NC. Wife Maggie Adams. Farmer. Resided Route 1, Black Creek. Buried Wilson County. Informant, Addison Adams, Route 2, Bailey.

Adams, Leander. Born 1843, Virginia. Died 19 April 1931, Black Creek township. No doctor within last 30 days. Father, John Adams, Virginia. Mother, Matilda Fountain. Widower of Alice Adams. Farmer. Buried Wilson County. Informant, W.D. Adams. [See Alice Adams, above.]

Adkins, Preacela. Born 1862, Rocky Mount NC. Died 8 November 1934, Toisnot township. Father, Richard Parker, Edgecombe County. Mother, Charlotte Parker, Edgecombe County. Widow of John Adkins. Buried Elm City NC. Informant, David L. Parker. [In the 1870 census of Cokey, Edgecombe County: farm laborer Richard Parker, 39, wife Charlotte, 37, and children Effy D., 16, Milly, 11, Richard, 8, Priscilla, 6, Mary E., 5, William Ann, 4, John, 1, and Harriet, 1 month.]

Adkinson, Mamie. Born 17 November 1869, Savannah, Georgia. Died 8 December 1947, Wilson NC. Probably malnutrition due to old age. Father, Charles Crick, Savannah. Widow of Henry Adkinson. Resided 115 Narroway Street, Wilson. Buried Rest Haven cemetery, Wilson. Informant, Viola Parker of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Adkinson, Sallie. Born 1850, Johnston County. 22 February 1926, Toisnot township. Influenza pneumonia. Father, Joe Whitsby, Johnston County. Caroline Whitsby, Johnston County. Widow. Buried Elm City. Informant, A. Batts.

Adkison, Martha. Born February 1866, Edgecombe County. Died 29 October 1932, Wilson township. Father, Alex Bullock. Mother, Hannah Bennett, Edgecombe County. Widow. Buried in Wilson. Informant, Mary Brown. [In the 1880 census of Upper Town Creek, Edgecombe County: laborer Alex Bullock, 30, wife Hannah, 34, and children Martha, 14, Charlie, 13, Gen’l Grant, 8, George, 7, Puss, 6, Mary, 5, Nannie, 3, and Orren, 4 months.]

Aikins, John H. Born 1860, North Carolina. Died 20 July 1914, Wilson. Cardiac asthma. Father, Edward Akins, Virginia. Mother, Annie King, Virginia. Horse dealer and liveryman. Married. Buried in Wilson. Informant, Georgia Akins.

Allen, Sarah Jane. Born Jun 1851, North Carolina. Died 5 June 1938, Old Fields township. “D.K. Sudden. Probably cardiac.” Mother, Lucy Williams, North Carolina. Widow of Isaac Allen. Buried, Southern Grove cemetery, Johnston County. Informant, Jerry Richardson.

Allen, William. Born 14 January 1839, Warren County. Died 17 August 1918, Spring Hill township. “Died suddenly no physician in attendance.” Father, Jim Allen, North Carolina. Mother, Mary [last name unknown], born North Carolina. Farmer. Buried in North Carolina. Informant, Kenzy Allen, Bailey, North Carolina.

Allen, Violet. Born 1858, Riverdale, Craven County. Died 27 March 1943, Wilson township. Father, Solomon [last name unknown], Riverdale, Craven County. Pellagra. Mother, Mary Alexander, Riverdale, Craven County. Widow. Farmer. Resided Wilson County Home. Usual residence in Black Creek. Buried in Black Creek. Informant, Henry Allen, Black Creek. [In the 1870 census of Wildwood, Craven County: Virginia-born farmer Solomon Alexander, North Carolina-born wife Mary, 34, and children Margerat, 13, Ann E., 10, and Violet, 4, plus farm laborers William Bright, 18, and Matilda Powell, 50. In the 1940 census of Black Creek, Wilson County: Violet Allen, 75, widow, living alone.]

Alston, James O. Born 1866, Franklin County. Died 12 September 1950, Wilson. Father, Charles Alston. Mother, Elsie [last name unknown]. Married. Orderly at Mercy Hospital. Resided at 507 East Green Street. Buried Rest Haven cemetery. Informant, Eula Locus. [Possibly, in the 1870 census of Sandy Creek, Franklin County: farmer Charles Alston, 40, wife Amy, and children Frances, 6, and James, H., 2. Also, per her death certificate, Eula Locus (1899-1964) was the daughter of James Alston and Martha Dew.]

Alston, Robert T. Born 1859, Granville County. Died 10 August 1931, Wilson township. Cardiovascular disease. Father, Aaron Alston, Granville County. Mother, Rosetta Alston, Warren County. Widower of Julia Alston. Jewelry and watchmaker. Informant, John T. Alston, Elm City. [In the 1870 census of Walnut Grove, Granville County: Aron Alston, 47, wife Rosetta, 18, and children Anna, 15, Haywood, 14, Robert, 12, Sallie, 10, Agnes, 9, Thomas, 7, Mary J., 4, and John H., 1.]

Anderson, Benjamin. Born 1856, Wilson County. Died 25 January 1920, Wilson County. Father, Benjamin Anderson, Wilson County. Mother, Kattie Barnes. Tenant farmer for Joseph C. Farmer. Wife, Maggie Anderson. Informant, Nathan Anderson. [In the 1870 census of Stantonsburg township, Wilson County: Benjamin Anderson, 39, wife Catharine, 38, and children Robert, 13, Joseph, 10, Dink, 8, Dinah, 4, and Lucy, 1. All were born in North Carolina except Catharine, who reported a Virginia birthplace. In the 1880 census of the family, same location, Ben Anderson is listed as a 4 year-old, which would seem to indicate that he was about 20 years younger than reported on his death certificate.]

Anderson, Joseph. Born 1860, Wilson County. Died 25 February 1930, Wilson County. “Suppression of urine & valvular heart disease as complication.” Father, Benjamin Anderson, Wilson County. Mother, Kattie Anderson, Wilson County. Tenant farmer for Seth Tyson. Widower. Buried Wilson County. Informant, James Anderson, Route 2, Wilson. [See above.]

Applewhite, Luke. Born 1855, Nahunta, Wayne County. Died 13 June 1923, Cross Roads township. “Died sudden and not attended by physician.” Father, Luke Applewhite, Nahunta, Wayne County. Mother, Malindia [last name unknown], Nahunta, Wayne County. Farmer. “Husbane of Henry Etta.” Informant, B.F. Applewhite. [Per their marriage license, Luke Applewhite, 22, son of Luke Applewhite and Malinda Bridgers, married Henrietta Bridgers, 20, daughter of Liberty Bridgers, on 16 October 1879, at Ben Sauls’ plantation in Nahunta, Wayne County.]

Applewhite, Thomas. Born 1865, Wilson County. Died 11 June 1933, Saratoga, Wilson County. “Cardiac & renal dropsy.” Father, Thomas Applewhite, Wilson County. Mother, Amanda Applewhite, Wilson County. Widower. Farmer. Buried Wilson County. Informant, Walter Applewhite, Route 5, Wilson.