slaveowner

Slave schedule.

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Prior to 1850, enslaved people were enumerated only as numbers in columns designated for sex and age. In 1850 and 1860, the federal government expanded the census to include “slave schedules.” Though enslaved people still were not recorded by name, they were enumerated individually by age, sex and color and grouped by slaveowner (or representative). Additional columns tallied “fugitives from the state,” “number manumitted,” “deaf, dumb, blind, insane, or idiotic,” and “no. of slave houses.”

These pages are the first and second in the 1860 slave schedule of Black Creek township, Wilson County. In them,

  • Sallie Simms reported that she owned ten slaves aged 7 months to 72 and sheltered them in two houses.
  • William Thompson reported that he owned 22 slaves aged 7 months to 44 and sheltered them in five houses.
  • Dr. A.G. Brooks reported that he owned 29 slaves aged 1 to 55 and sheltered them in four houses.
  • Enos Barnes reported that he owned two teenaged boys and sheltered them in one house.
  • Celia Barnes reported that she owned 28 year-old and 53 year-old men.
  • James Barnes reported that he owned nine slaves aged 3 to 50 and sheltered them in four houses.
  • Jesse Watson reported that he owned one ten year-old boy.
  • James Daniel reported that he owned four male slaves aged 9 to 60 and sheltered them in two houses.
  • Joseph Farrell reported that he owned nine slaves aged 5 months to 38 and sheltered them in one house.
  • James Nusom reported that he owned 22 slaves aged 1 to 28 and sheltered them in four houses.
  • Jesse Sauls reported that he owned seven slaves aged 3 to 26 and sheltered them in two houses.
  • Nancy Bass reported that she owned eight slaves aged 5 months to 36 and sheltered them in two houses.
  • Belinda Aycock reported that she owned six slaves aged 3 to 38 and sheltered them in two houses.
  • Sallie Daniel reported that she owned 14 slaves aged 11 months to 53 and sheltered them in four houses.
  • Elisha Bass reported reported that he owned six slaves aged 3 months to 30 and sheltered them in one house.
  • Jeremiah Bass reported that he owned a 17 year-old girl and two babies, aged 2 years and 4 months, who were probably her children.
  • Ephraim Bass reported that he owned a 36 year-old man.

Jacob and Sarah Barnes Daniel house.

Per Kate Ohno, Wilson County’s Architectural Heritage (1981):

“The Jacob Daniel House is similar in construction to the Dr. Robert Cox House (also in Black Creek Township). The house was built for Jacob Daniel before 1850. Daniel was born in 1805 and died in 1880. He married Sarah Barnes, and according to the 1860 census he was a farmer of some substance, owning $6,000 worth of real property. Like the Cox House, the Daniel House has an engaged porch and rear shed. In the early twentieth century a kitchen wing was added to the rear. On the interior the house is divided into two rooms at the front with another room in the rear shed.”

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In the 1850 census of the North Side of the Neuse River, Wayne County: farmer Jacob Daniel, 45; wife Sarah, 50; and children Elizabeth, 21, Josiah, 20, Mary, 18, Zilpha, 15, Lucindia, 12, Sarah, 10, and Laney, 8. [Black Creek was in northern Wayne County prior to the establishment of Wilson County.]

In the 1850 slave schedule of the North Side of the Neuse, Wayne County, Jacob Daniel is reported with eight slaves, four girls and women aged 4 to 35, and four boys and men, aged 1 to 50.

In the 1860 census of Black Creek township, Wilson County: farmer Jacob Daniel, 55; wife Sallie, 60; Willie Batts, 20; Teresa Batts, 21; and James Flora, 16. reported $6000 in real estate and $600 in personal property, including enslaved people.

In the 1860 slave schedule of Black Creek township, Wilson County, Jacob Daniel is reported with four enslaved men and boys, aged 9 to 60.

The 1870 census of Wilson County lists many dozens of African-Americans with the surname Daniel living throughout the eastern half of Wilson County.

“Standing by your old ni**er, are you?”

b Woodard 1 31 1908

News & Observer (Raleigh), 31 January 1908.

This nasty bit of “news” is a sample of the gratuitous racism that permeated Josephus DanielsNews & Observer in the Jim Crow era. Daniels had grown up in and gotten his journalistic start in Wilson and undoubtedly knew all the involved parties well.

Benjamin Woodard, a notorious folk doctor in Wilson County, had been arrested on unclear charges (probably involving bootlegging liquor) and hauled into federal court in Raleigh. Several notable white Wilsonians showed up to serve as counsel and character witnesses, including brothers and law partners Frederick A. Woodard (a former United States Congressman) and Sidney A. Woodard (a state congressman). The Woodards were described as Ben Woodard’s former owners, though F.A. had been a child and S.A. an infant at war’s end. Ben’s owner, then, had been their father, Dr. Stephen Woodard of Black Creek, Wilson County. F.A. requested a nolle prosequi (“nol. pros.”), which is odd, as this is generally a motion made by a prosecutor who wishes to drop charges. The District Attorney here politely indicated his unwillingness to make such a request, but the judge cheerfully entered it anyway. Thus Dr. Ben benefitted from ties forged in slavery and earned an insulting article in the state’s newspaper of record.