Republican Party

Who in the Sam Hill …?

On 17 February 1882, the Wilson Advance ran a brief piece announcing that the colored people would begin publishing the Wilson News in March of that year, and S.N. Hill would be an editor of this for-the-people-by-the-people paper. (No editions are known to survive.) Two months later, Samuel Hill was well-enough established in local politics to be appointed a poll holder in Wilson.

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Wilson Advance, 14 April 1882.

The Advance was the first foray of notorious, but much celebrated, Josephus Daniels into the newspaper business, and the white supremacist world view he later honed to a fine point at Raleigh’s News & Observer was on naked display in its pages. Local and regional Republican politics, which were dominated by African-Americans, were not spared. That the Advance‘s presses printed Hill’s paper did not shield him either. The Advance printed the satirical letter below (and a similar one a few weeks later) purportedly written by “Jedekiah Judkins” to George W. Stanton, a die-hard Unionist and Republican.

10 20 1882

Wilson Advance, 20 October 1882.

Snide commentary in the white press notwithstanding, Hill networked and exchanged ideas with other black journalists and political figures in eastern North Carolina the following summer. [Was the Independent yet another newspaper?]

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Wilmington Daily Review, 5 July 1883.

His statewide networking secured his designation as a marshal for the state colored fair.

The Banner-Enterprise (Raleigh), 27 October 1883.

The News apparently was still in publication in December 1883 when the Advance printed a small blurb suggesting that Hill was angling for postmaster appointment under the auspices of James E. O’Hara, who had been elected in 1882 as a Republican to the United States House of Representatives from North Carolina’s “Black Second” district.

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Wilson Advance, 21 December 1883.

Months later, however, the paper seems to have faltered, and Hill had to relaunch the publication.

4 25 1884

Wilson Advance, 25 April 1884.

On 22 January 1885, the Advance printed a brief note that a Samuel Hill referred to in a recent article as having been chaged with perjury in Toisnot township was not the “Samuel N. Hill that all our people know.” The known Hill had stopped by the Advance‘s offices and informed them that “he is now traveling for a newspaper at New Bern.”

By the late 1880s, Hill was living in Wilmington, where newspaper reports note that he was active in efforts to encourage African-American investment in local railroad companies

Not quite five years later, the Advance reported that Hill, an “irrepressible” “coon,” had received a patronage position in Washington. There is no evidence that he returned to Wilson.

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Wilson Advance, 29 August 1889.

Within the next few years, however, Hill withdrew from active politics and began to espouse an accommodationist philosophy. On 27 November 1898, New Bern Daily Journal published a letter by Hill lashing out at “unscrupulous white Republicans” and “scheming politicians” and praising the good white folks who had always shown “the best sympathy” to colored people. “Make friends with the best white people among whom you live,” he exhorted. “Their interests are greater than yours and  the maintenance of happiness depends upon their efforts.” A few weeks later, on 10 December, the Wilmington Morning Star cited Hill’s “sensible and calm utterances” in the wake of the Wilmington Insurrection as a positive contrast to the stridency of Congressman George E. White, a “bumptious strutter.” For his part, Hill had pshawed agitation against “fancied evils which do not exist” and counseled “[t]he best public meeting for the negro to attend is his church, where he may commune with his God, and where he may be influenced for good.”

So where did Sam Hill come from? And where did he go?

Most likely, he was the Samuel Nelson Hill who opened two accounts at the Freedmen’s Bank’s New Bern branch. The first time, on 9 August 1871, Hill was 12 years old. His account registration card notes that he resided in Bragg’s Alley; was light-complected; was the son of Moses M. and Adeline Hill; had brothers named Benjamin Starkey (dead), Moses Hill and Thomas Hancock; and sisters named Carolina and Holland Hill. The boy signed his own name.

Hill opened another account on 8 June 1874. Per that account registration, he was born and “brought up” in New Bern; resided in Windsors Brickyard, Virginia; worked for Dr. Windsor; was 15 years old; was of yellow complexion; and had a brother named Noah Harper, also of New Bern. Samuel signed his name with a mature version of his earlier signature and with a confident, curlicued firmness that connotes deep literacy.

In the 1880 census of New Bern, North Carolina: on Elm Street, shoemaker Moses Hill, 49, wife Adelaine, 43, son Samuel, 20, a shoemaker, and daughter Susan, 1. Moses reported that he suffered from rheumatism and Susan from whooping cough.

Hill probably arrived in Wilson in 1881. His star there burned bright and brief, and by about 1885, he had moved on. His whereabouts the decade of the 1890s are unclear, but just after the turn of the century Hill is found in the Berkshires of western Massachusetts, performing manual labor.

On 19 November 1904, Samuel Nelson Hill, 45, of 288 North Street, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, married Georgeanna Treadwell Vanderburgh, 43, of 6 Cole Avenue, Pittsfield. Hill reported that he was the son of Moses Hill and Adeline Hancock and was born in New Bern, North Carolina. He worked as a laborer, and this was his first marriage.

In the 1910 census of Pittsfield, Berkshire County, Massachusetts: electrical works janitor Samuel N. Hill, 50, and wife Georgeanna, 49.

Samuel Nelson Hill of 164 Linden died 21 March 1918 in Pittsfield, age 58 years, five months, five days.

Negroes take advantage. (Vick is an unusual negro.)

NY Times 12 7 1902 Vick

President William H. Harrison appointed Samuel H. Vick postmaster of Wilson in 1889. President William McKinley selected Vick again for the position in 1898. Despite the setback described above, the Lily Whites ultimately were successful in thwarting Vick’s reappointment in 1903.

Poll holders for the coming election.

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Wilson Advance, 6 October 1892.

  • A.D. Dawson — Alexander D. Dawson (circa 1860-??) worked as a teacher, and then a fishmonger and merchant.
  • Samuel Gay — in the 1900 census of Wilson township, Wilson County: Sam Gay, 54, wife Alice, 50, and children Charlie, 23, Edgar B., 25, Lucy, 17, Samuel, 14, Albert, 10, Beatrice, 10, and Lily, 4. Samuel Gay died 2 July 1919 in Wilson. Per his death certificate, he was 73 years old; born in Wilson County; married to Allace Gay; and worked as a tenant farmer at W.E. Warren’s.
  • Jack Woodard — in the 1900 census of Black Creek township, Wilson County: Jackson Woodard, 56, wife Fannie, 53, and children Daisy, 30, Aaron, 22, Harry, 19, Augustus, 18, Steven, 16, Mary, 11, and Harriet, 8, plus grandchildren Eddie, 5, Bessie, 3, and Nank, 10 months. Jack Woodard died 15 March 1920 in Black Creek township. Per his death certificate, Jack, 78, was born in Wilson County to Aaron Farmer and an unknown mother, was married to Carlin [Caroline] Woodard, and was a tenant farmer for Graham Woodard.
  • Smith Mercer — in the 1900 census of Wilson township, Wilson County: farmer Smith Mercer, 60, wife Chaney, 46, children Lily V., 12, LeRoy, 8, and Linda, 24, and grandchildren Annie Bell, 6, and Charlie, 1.
  • Isaac Rich — in the 1900 census of Crossroads township, Wilson County: widower farmer Isaac Rich, 50, daughters Martha A., 28, and Wibby, 16, niece Littie Langston, 8, and nephew Rommie O’Neil, 8.
  • Joseph Hinnant — in the 1900 census of Spring Hill township, Wilson County: farmer James T. Hinnant, 35, his mother Rhoda, 59, father Joseph, 70, sisters Louisa, 25,  Martha, 21, and Mary, 18.
  • Richard Jones — in the 1900 census of Old Fields township, Wilson County: farmer Richard Jones, 65, wife Lucy, 52, sister Cherry, 50, granddaughter Annie, 9, brother Joseph Huston, 50, and nephew Weston Huston, 25.
  • Noel Jones — in the 1880 census of Old Fields township, Wilson County: laborer Noel Jones, 34, wife Sarah, 32, and children Josiah, 13, Charity, 12, Edieth J., 10, and Noel J., 6.
  • Hilliard Ellis — see here and here and here and here.
  • Alfred Woodard — in the 1900 census of Taylors township, Wilson County: farmer Alfred Woodard, 69, wife Sarah, 59, daughters Nora, 21, and Francis, 7, and servant Bessa Foard, 19.
  • John Ellis — in the 1900 census of Wilson township, Wilson County: day laborer John Ellis, 50, wife Marry, 50, and children Antney, 21, Alex, 18, James, 16, Marry, 14, and Delphia, 8.
  • Mark Barron — in the 1900 census of Gardners township, Wilson County: farmer Mark Barron, 54, wife Mason, 50, children Frank, 18, Peter, 21, John, 20, and Mary, 16, granddaughter Mary M., 6 months, and sister Gatsie, 51. Mark Barron died 26 April 1928 in Gardners township. Per his death certificate, he was 83 years old; lived on Route 3, Elm City; was born in Wilson County to Benjamin and Marion Barron, both of Wilson County; and worked as a tenant farmer.
  • William Taylor
  • Amos Ellis — in the 1900 census of Stantonsburg township, Wilson County: Amos Ellis, 39, wife Cherry, 37, and children Samuel, 15, Lizzie C., 14, James, 7, Lena, 4, Mack B., 3, and Walter L., 9 months.
  • Louis Barnes — in the 1900 census of Stantonsburg township, Wilson County: Lewis Barnes, 57, wife Allie, 53, and children Adline, 24, James, 19, Sallie, 15, and Lucinda, 13.

We are the Republican party and those who denounce us are the traitors.

One hundred eighteen years ago today, four of Wilson’s African-American politicians — William H. Vick, W.S. Mitchell, Levi H. Peacock and Elijah L. Reid — submitted for newspaper publication a letter firmly denouncing the fusion politics of the era and declaring their firm allegiance to the Party of Lincoln.

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Wilson Advance, 25 October 1894.

The Union League.

Nearly 80% black, and representing the 40% of North Carolina’s population that was African-American, the Union League was critical to the success of the Republican Party post-Civil War. Governor William W. Holden, committed to black political and social equality, pulled the Union League under the party’s umbrella with white Unionists. The newly formed Ku Klux Klan rose up in opposition, unleashing a scourge of retribution and intimidation across the state and driving Holden from office. Under this pressure, the League effectively collapsed by 1871.

In 1912, the Sewanee Review published J.G. de Roulhac Hamilton’s “The Union League in North Carolina,” a disapproving assessment of the League’s activities across the state. In the article, Hamilton, a professor of history at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and founder of that institution’s esteemed Southern Historical Collection, briefly touched upon Wilson County’s organization:

“In December, 1869, at Wilson Court, in the case of two members of the League who were indicted for whipping a negro for voting the Conservative ticket, Judge Thomas refused to admit any evidence to show that the League had ordered the whipping, and sentenced them when convicted to thirty and sixty days’ imprisonment respectively. They were immediately pardoned by the governor.”

 

 

A different kind of Republican convention.

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Wilson Advance, 17 May 1888.

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Wilson Mirror, 27 June 1894.

  • A.D. Dawson — Alexander D. Dawson.
  • Daniel Vick
  • Gray Farmer 
  • James Bynum — Perhaps, farm worker James Bynum, 43, with wife Mary, 41, in the 1880 census of Wilson township, Wilson County.
  • W.H. VickWilliam Henry Vick.
  • B.R. WinsteadBraswell R. Winstead.
  • S.A. SmithSimeon A. Smith.
  • Gray Newsome — In the 1880 census of Black Creek township, Wilson County: Gray Newsome died 3 September 1930 in Pine Level township, Johnston County. His death certificate notes that he was born about 1853 in Wilson County to Willie and Nancy Jenkins Newsome of Wilson County.
  • Honorable Geo. H. White — United States Congressman. See here and here.